By N. Gunock. Aspen University. 2019.
This guideline reviews the treatment that patients with borderline personality disorder may need buy erectafil toronto erectile dysfunction and diabetes treatment. Psychiatrists care for patients in many different settings and serve a variety of functions and thus should either provide or recommend the appropriate treatment for patients with bor- derline personality disorder buy erectafil 20mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction treatment ginseng. Therefore purchase erectafil 20mg without a prescription impotence yohimbe, psychiatrists caring for patients with borderline personality disorder should consider purchase genuine erectafil line short term erectile dysfunction causes, but not be limited to, treatments recommended in this guideline. Diagnostic Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following: 1) Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonmenta 2) A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation 3) Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self 4) Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e. Reprinted from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 7 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. This guideline strives to be as free as possible of bias toward any theoretical approach to treatment. This practice guideline was developed under the auspices of the Steering Committee on Practice Guidelines. The sum- mary of treatment recommendations is keyed according to the level of confidence with which each recommendation is made. In addition, each reference is followed by a letter code in brack- ets that indicates the nature of the supporting evidence. The three categories represent varying levels of clinical confidence regarding the recommendation: [I] Recommended with substantial clinical confidence. It is characterized by marked distress and functional impairment, and it is associated with high rates of self-destructive behavior (e. The care of patients with borderline personality disorder involves a comprehensive array of approaches. This guideline presents treatment options and addresses factors that need to be considered when treating a patient with borderline personality disorder. The initial assessment The psychiatrist first performs an initial assessment of the patient to determine the treatment setting [I]. Because suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are common, safety issues should be given priority, and a thorough safety evaluation should be done. This evaluation, as well as con- sideration of other clinical factors, will determine the necessary treatment setting (e. It is important at the outset of treatment to establish a clear and explicit treatment frame- work [I], which includes establishing agreement with the patient about the treatment goals. Psychiatric management Psychiatric management forms the foundation of treatment for all patients. The primary treat- ment for borderline personality disorder is psychotherapy, complemented by symptom-targeted pharmacotherapy [I]. In addition, psychiatric management consists of a broad array of ongoing activities and interventions that should be instituted by the psychiatrist for all patients with borderline personality disorder [I]. Regardless of the specific primary and adjunctive treatment modalities selected, it is important to continue providing psychiatric management throughout the course of treatment. The components of psychiatric management for patients with border- Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 9 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Principles of treatment selection a) Type Certain types of psychotherapy (as well as other psychosocial modalities) and certain psycho- tropic medications are effective in the treatment of borderline personality disorder [I]. Pharmacotherapy often has an important ad- junctive role, especially for diminution of symptoms such as affective instability, impulsivity, psychotic-like symptoms, and self-destructive behavior [I]. Flexibility is also needed to respond to the changing characteristics of patients over time. Treatment by multiple clinicians has potential advantages but may become frag- mented; good collaboration among treatment team members and clarity of roles are essential [I]. Specific treatment strategies a) Psychotherapy Two psychotherapeutic approaches have been shown in randomized controlled trials to have ef- ficacy: psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy and dialectical behavior therapy [I]. The treat- ment provided in these trials has three key features: weekly meetings with an individual therapist, one or more weekly group sessions, and meetings of therapists for consultation/super- vision. No results are available from direct comparisons of these two approaches to suggest which patients may respond better to which type of treatment. Although brief therapy for borderline personality disorder has not been systematically examined, studies of more extended treatment suggest that substantial improvement may not occur until after approximately 1 year of psycho- therapeutic intervention has been provided; many patients require even longer treatment. Clinical experience suggests that there are a number of common features that help guide the psychotherapist, regardless of the specific type of therapy used [I]. These features include build- ing a strong therapeutic alliance and monitoring self-destructive and suicidal behaviors. Other valuable interventions include validating the patient’s suffering and ex- perience as well as helping the patient take responsibility for his or her actions. Because patients with borderline personality disorder may exhibit a broad array of strengths and weaknesses, flexibility is a crucial aspect of effective therapy. Other components of effective therapy for pa- tients with borderline personality disorder include managing feelings (in both patient and ther- apist), promoting reflection rather than impulsive action, diminishing the patient’s tendency to engage in splitting, and setting limits on any self-destructive behaviors. Group approaches are usually used in combination with individual therapy and other types of treatment. The published literature on couples therapy is limited but suggests that it may be a useful and, at times, essential adjunctive treatment mo- dality. Symptoms exhibited by patients with borderline personality disorder often fall within three behavioral dimensions—affective dysregulation, impulsive-behavioral dys- control, and cognitive-perceptual difficulties—for which specific pharmacological treatment strategies can be used. No part of this guideline may be reproduced except as permitted under Sections 107 and 108 of U. An algorithm depicting steps that can be taken in treating symptoms of affective dysregula- tion in patients with borderline personality disorder is shown in Appendix 1. As seen in Appendix 3, low-dose neuroleptics are the treatment of choice for these symptoms [I]. These medications may improve not only psychotic-like symptoms but also depressed mood, impulsivity, and anger/hostility. Risk management considerations include the need for collaboration and communication with any other treating clinicians as well as the need for careful and adequate documentation. Any problems with transference and counter- transference should be attended to, and consultation with a colleague should be considered for unusually high-risk patients. Other clinical features requiring particular consideration of risk management issues are the risk of suicide, the potential for boundary violations, and the potential for angry, impulsive, or violent behavior. The psychiatrist performs an initial assessment to determine the treatment setting, completes a comprehensive evaluation (including differential diagnosis), and works with the patient to mutually establish the treatment framework. The psy- chiatrist also attends to a number of principles of psychiatric management that form the foun- dation of care for patients with borderline personality disorder. Fi- nally, the psychiatrist selects specific treatment strategies for the clinical features of borderline personality disorder. Initial assessment and determination of the treatment setting The psychiatrist first performs an initial assessment of the patient and determines the treatment setting (e. A thorough safety evaluation should be done before a decision can be reached about whether outpatient, inpatient, or another level of care (e. Presented here are some of the more common indications for particular levels of care. Since indications for level of care are difficult to empirically investigate and studies are lacking, these recommendations are derived primarily from expert clinical opinion. Indications for partial hospitalization (or brief inpatient hospitalization if partial hospital- ization is not available) include the following: • Dangerous, impulsive behavior unable to be managed with outpatient treatment • Nonadherence with outpatient treatment and a deteriorating clinical picture • Complex comorbidity that requires more intensive clinical assessment of response to treatment • Symptoms of sufficient severity to interfere with functioning, work, or family life that are unresponsive to outpatient treatment Indications for brief inpatient hospitalization include the following: • Imminent danger to others • Loss of control of suicidal impulses or serious suicide attempt • Transient psychotic episodes associated with loss of impulse control or impaired judgment • Symptoms of sufficient severity to interfere with functioning, work, or family life that are unresponsive to outpatient treatment and partial hospitalization Indications for extended inpatient hospitalization include the following: • Persistent and severe suicidality, self-destructiveness, or nonadherence to outpatient treatment or partial hospitalization • Comorbid refractory axis I disorder (e. Comprehensive evaluation Once an initial assessment has been done and the treatment setting determined, a more com- prehensive evaluation should be completed as soon as clinically feasible. Such an evaluation in- cludes assessing the presence of comorbid disorders, degree and type of functional impairment, needs and goals, intrapsychic conflicts and defenses, developmental progress and arrests, adap- tive and maladaptive coping styles, psychosocial stressors, and strengths in the face of stressors (see Part B, Section V. The psychiatrist should attempt to understand the bi- ological, interpersonal, familial, social, and cultural factors that affect the patient (3). Special attention should be paid to the differential diagnosis of borderline personality dis- order versus axis I conditions (see Part B, Sections V. The prognosis for treatment of these axis I disorders is often poorer when borderline personality disorder is present. It is usually better to anticipate realistic problems than to encourage unrealistically high hopes. Establishing the treatment framework It is important at the outset of treatment to establish a clear and explicit treatment framework. The clinician and the patient can then refer to this agreement later in the treatment if the patient challenges it. Patients and clinicians should establish agreements about goals of treatment sessions (e. Patients, for example, are expected to report on such issues as conflicts, dysfunction, and impending life changes. Clinicians are expected to offer understanding, explanations for treatment interventions, undistracted attention, and respectful, compassionate attitudes, with judicious feedback to patients that can help them attain their goals. In addition, it is essential for patients and clinicians to work toward establishing agreements about 1) when, where, and with what frequency sessions will be held; 2) a plan for crises management; 3) clarifi- cation of the clinician’s after-hours availability; and 4) the fee, billing, and payment schedule. It consists of an array of ongoing activities and interventions that should be instituted for all patients. These include providing education about borderline per- sonality disorder, facilitating adherence to a psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological reg- imen that is satisfactory to both the patient and psychiatrist, and attempting to help the patient solve practical problems, giving advice and guidance when needed. Specific components of psychiatric management are discussed here as well as additional im- portant issues—such as the potential for splitting and boundary problems—that may compli- cate treatment and of which the clinician must be aware and manage. Responding to crises and safety monitoring Psychiatrists should assume that crises, such as interpersonal crises or self-destructive behavior, will occur.
The shipments may Heroin trafficking from Afghanistan to the Asia-Pacific reflect the recent trafficking route to south-eastern region is an increasing trend buy erectafil amex otc erectile dysfunction drugs walgreens, visible in individual drug China order erectafil 20mg line vasculogenic erectile dysfunction causes. Among those cases in heroin were trafficked by air from South-West Asia to which the destination of the consignment was identified the north-west of China (notably Urumqi) generic erectafil 20mg on line can erectile dysfunction cause prostate cancer, an increas- as a country or region other than Pakistan order erectafil visa impotence zargan, the propor- ingly important route went from Afghanistan and tion destined for the Asia-Pacific region underwent a neighbouring countries to the south-eastern Chinese distinct change in the transition from 2005 to 2006. Five tively stable over the period 2002-2005 (ranging between of the seizure cases in Guangdong province in 2009 11 and 13%), rose distinctly to 44% in 2006, to remain together accounted for 1 mt of heroin. It is likely that a significant proportion of these have caused a drop in heroin seizures in this region, sug- consignments was intended for China. In 2009, an estimated 7 mt of South-East Asia to Australia and, to a lesser extent, New heroin were trafficked from Africa to Europe, almost 1 Zealand. There are no reports of onward heroin traffick- mt to China and a small amount to Australia. Heroin flows to other destinations South Asia South Asia was an important consumption and transit Aside from the above-mentioned destination markets, point for Afghan heroin in 2009. Some 25 mt of pure there are other international consumption markets, heroin were consumed in the region and 15 mt were including the Americas and Oceania. Of this, some 6 mt went to South- In 2009, an estimated 40 mt of heroin were available in East Asia, 6 mt to Africa, 1-2 mt to North America and the Americas, the majority of which was grown and 1 mt each to China and Europe. Only a limited amount of Afghan of users in India use Indian heroin, drug traffickers heroin was available in the market, as production in prefer to export Afghan heroin due to its higher purity. However, the Of the 40 mt of heroin that were available in South Asia, heroin market in Canada is mainly supplied by Afghan an estimated 25 mt were trafficked from Afghanistan to heroin. South Asia, and a further 15 mt were manufactured In 2009, Mexico produced 426 mt of opium, which domestically. Indian heroin supplied regional markets may be converted into 40 mt of Mexican (black tar) including Bangladesh,56 Nepal57 and Sri Lanka. However, such a level of heroin production in Mexico would be equivalent to almost double the esti- Africa mated consumption in its main destination market of In 2009, an estimated 40-45 mt of Afghan heroin were North America (22 mt). In the absence of regional trafficked to Africa, of which some 25 mt were likely opiate stocks, either production figures are over-esti- trafficked from Pakistan, 5-6 mt from the United Arab mated or consumption is under-estimated. Emirates, 5-6 mt from India and 5 mt from the Islamic Production in Colombia is similarly opaque. The majority of heroin is still smug- 58% of the heroin seized in the United States of Amer- gled into South Africa, mainly from South-West Asia ica is reportedly of Colombian origin. Major hubs in Colombia’s total opium production was 9 mt in 2009, Africa include Nigeria and South Africa. As Colombian The majority of heroin that reached the continent was law enforcement bodies seized 650 kg of heroin in 2009, 350 kg of heroin were left for trafficking. The currently available data is insufficient to prop- erly understand heroin supply and demand in the Americas. Afghan heroin dominated the markets in Aus- tralia and New Zealand, likely trafficked via Pakistan and South-East Asian countries. Indeed, Australia regis- tered a significant diversification in the countries of departure for heroin trafficking into the country (of which there were 11 in 1999-2000 and 29 in 2008- 2009),59 and identified Cambodia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam as the most common departure countries in 2008-2009. Although heroin trafficking from South and East Africa to Australia was limited in 2009, shipments from Africa are emerging as a new trend, according to the Australian Government. Although farmers in tations with various Government experts and institu- Afghanistan supply much of the world’s opiates, it is the tions. Flows may deviate to other countries along estimated heroin consumption as well as the average the routes and there are numerous secondary flows that price. Moreover, trends respond rap- average prices are detailed elsewhere in this chapter. Opiate Heroin consumption amounts for each country/region flow estimations would, therefore, need to be revised if were calculated by multiplying the estimated number of demand statistics were to change. The estimates will be opiate users by the average heroin consumption per updated periodically as new drug use data is provided by capita per year. At the end of March In order to compare the market values between regions 2011, the national average price for one kilogram of dry and countries, all prices were adjusted for purity. The current farm-gate To calculate the amount of opiate flows through a coun- price is the highest price reported since November 2004. A long-term this is that the impact on the final price of price changes comparison of the trader price of opium in Afghanistan at the source is only cumulative, rather than propor- with heroin prices in Europe shows that, despite a tional, resulting in a non-discernible effect at the much marked hike in opium prices between early 2000 and higher order of magnitude of retail prices. The value of the world heroin market tends to Afghanistan was grown in the provinces of southern increase according to the number of international bor- Afghanistan where anti-government elements are active. That is, heroin is generally Although the Afghan Taliban’s role in drug trafficking is cheaper in Afghanistan, a production country, than in not clear, opium poppy farmers, drug traffickers and West and Central Europe, where the drugs have been heroin lab owners paid the group up to 10% of the value transported by various means across long distances and of their opiate shipments as ‘tax’ or protection fees. The major- West and Central ity of the profits went to Iranian criminal groups and, to Europe, 13, 19% Russian a lesser extent, foreign drug traffickers based in the Federation, 18, country. Turkish, Kurdish and Balkan-based organized crime Beneficiaries groups benefited from this trade. Indeed, ben- Dutch and Turkish organized crime groups, and, to a eficiaries in Afghanistan, for example, earned signifi- lesser extent, South Asian groups. In 2009, many international borders became more transparent In 2009, Russian criminal networks made an estimated due to international trade agreements. Based on drug-related are likely to exploit this situation and make connections arrests, the Russian drug market is dominated by Rus- with other criminal networks to facilitate the smooth sian citizens, followed by Tajiks as the most active for- movement of heroin. Drug trafficking in East Europe is most likely conducted by local groups; however, the picture Given the ongoing removal of trade barriers globally, regarding criminal activity in this region is not very traditional methods of border control may become clear. In 2009, only Chinese and other local organized crime groups control a tiny fraction of the more than 400 million containers the South-East Asian heroin market at both retail and that were shipped worldwide were inspected. The heroin trade in Indonesia is pre- just 6% of global heroin seizures made by customs dominantly controlled and directed by West Africans, departments occurred at seaports. In 2009, Africa emerged as a cost-effective heroin traf- In 2009, Africa’s drug trafficking market was worth an ficking route to Europe, North America and Oceania. Nigerian groups likely Africans – particularly West African networks – are dominate the African drug trade and are active in many increasingly transporting Afghan heroin from Pakistan countries around the world, including destination coun- into East Africa for onward shipment to Europe and tries in Europe. The emergence of Africa as a heroin traffick- involves both African networks, including Nigerians and ing hub is likely due to corruption, limited law enforce- Tanzanians, as well as foreign networks, including Chi- ment capacity and increased pressure on ‘traditional’ nese and Pakistanis. East Africa’s minimal law The United States of America dominated regional enforcement at ports of entry has encouraged drug traf- demand for heroin, with a heroin market worth an esti- fickers to transit heroin through that region. North America-based flows of heroin to Africa have also led to increases in organized crime groups (such as Mexican drug cartels) drug use across the continent. Anecdotal information points to and alter trafficking routes to exploit international paths a shortage in some countries, but not in all, suggesting of least resistance. Numerous global vulnerabilities that increased law enforcement efforts and decreased remain and some new areas are emerging. Global seizures of Most indicators and research suggest that cocaine is – cocaine have been generally stable over the period 2006- after heroin – the second most problematic drug world- 2009. Since 2006, seizures have shifted towards the wide in terms of negative health consequences and source areas in South America and away from the con- probably the most problematic drug in terms of traffick- sumer markets in North America and West and Central ing-related violence. Some secondary distribution countries in South America seem to have acquired increasing importance as The overall prevalence and number of cocaine users cocaine trafficking transit countries. There are regional differ- West Africa continues to be significant, in spite of a ences in recent trends, however, with significant decreases reduction of seizures since 2007 (from 25% of European reported in North America, stable trends in West and cocaine seizures that transited countries of West and Central Europe and increases in Africa and Asia. The area estimated consumption of cocaine in terms of the quan- remains vulnerable to a resurgence. Some countries in tities consumed appears to have declined, mainly due to the Asia-Pacific - with large potential consumer markets a decrease in the United States and low levels of per - have registered increasing cocaine seizures in 2008 and capita use in the emerging markets. While demand in the and, more recently, in South America and beyond, high- United States was more than four times as high as in lights the need to treat cocaine as a global problem, and Europe in 1998, just over a decade later, the volume and to develop strategies on the scale of the threat. Member Member Percent Percent Percent States States Use Use Use use use use Region providing perception problem problem problem problem problem problem perception response increased* stable decreased* increased stable decreased data rate Africa 8 15% 4 50% 2 25% 2 25% Americas 15 43% 5 33% 7 47% 3 20% Asia 13 29% 7 54% 3 23% 3 23% Europe 27 60% 14 52% 13 48% 0 0% Oceania 1 7% 0 Global 64 33% 30 47% 26 41% 8 13% * Identifies increases/ decreases ranging from either some to strong, unweighted by population. The information on the extent of cocaine use in South or main difference from previous years is the widening of Central Asia. In 2009, a substantial decrease in the esti- the ranges, arising from a lack of recent or reliable infor- mates of cocaine users was recorded for North America, mation in Africa - particularly West and Central Africa2 while cocaine use in Europe appeared to have stabilized. In geographical terms, however, cocaine use appears to 1 In 2008, the estimated annual prevalence number of cocaine users have spread. Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Adminis- tration, Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use 3. This was particularly noticeable in Africa and Asia, where increasing seizures of cocaine, though still at low levels, users worldwide. Household surveys in the countries of have also been reported in countries that had never North America reveal a prevalence rate of annual cocaine reported any in the past. The main stabilization or decrease in cocaine use trends is perceived to be taking Since 2006, among the population aged 12 years and place in the Americas. As in the United States, use from the previous year, whereas the treatment cocaine use has also been decreasing considerably in demand for cocaine as the primary substance of concern Canada since 2004, when it was reported as 2. Cocaine use in the annual prevalence of cocaine use is much lower, at South and Central America remains at levels higher than 0. Experts in Mexico perceived an increase in cocaine 7 Health Canada, Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey, 8 This decline in treatment demand may stem from a change in treat- 2009. The estimated annual prevalence national survey conducted in 2009 among university among the adult population ranges between 0. The prevalence of cocaine use in South Amer- much lower among female students than male. Among ica, though much lower than North America, is compa- the students aged 18-24 and 25-34, comparable levels of rable to that in Europe.
Ivermectin has limited ovicidal activity and Special Considerations may not prevent recurrences of eggs at the time of treatment buy erectafil 20 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction causes uk; therefore order erectafil uk erectile dysfunction urology tests, a second dose of ivermectin should be administered Pregnancy 14 days after the first dose generic 20 mg erectafil mastercard erectile dysfunction hernia. Ivermectin should be taken with Existing data from human subjects suggest that pregnant and food because bioavailability is increased order erectafil master card how to cure erectile dysfunction at young age, thereby increasing lactating women should be treated with either permethrin or penetration of the drug into the epidermis. Because no teratogenicity ivermectin dosing are not required in patients with renal or toxicity attributable to ivermectin has been observed in impairment, but the safety of multiple doses in patients with human pregnancy experience, ivermectin is classified as severe liver disease is not known. Use of lindane during (855); it should only be used if the patient cannot tolerate pregnancy has been associated with neural tube defects and the recommended therapies or if these therapies have failed (860–862). Recommendations and Reports a bath or shower, and it should not be used by persons who symptoms to persist as a result of cross reactivity between have extensive dermatitis or children aged <10 years. Even when treatment is successful, reinfection is have occurred when lindane was applied after a bath or used avoided, and cross reactivity does not occur, symptoms can by patients who had extensive dermatitis. Lindane resistance Retreatment 2 weeks after the initial treatment regimen can has been reported in some areas of the world, including parts be considered for those persons who are still symptomatic or of the United States. Use of an alternative regimen is recommended for those persons who do not respond initially Other Management Considerations to the recommended treatment. Persons with scabies Persons who have had sexual, close personal, or household should be advised to keep fingernails closely trimmed to reduce contact with the patient within the month preceding scabies injury from excessive scratching. Ivermectin can be considered in these Crusted scabies is transmitted more easily than scabies (863). No controlled therapeutic studies for crusted scabies have Epidemics should be managed in consultation with a specialist. Substantial treatment failure might occur with a Special Considerations single-dose topical scabicide or with oral ivermectin treatment. Infants, Young Children, and Pregnant or Lactating Combination treatment is recommended with a topical Women scabicide, either 5% topical benzyl benzoate or 5% topical Infants and young children should be treated with permethrin cream (full-body application to be repeated permethrin; the safety of ivermectin in children who weigh daily for 7 days then 2x weekly until discharge or cure), and <15 kg has not been determined. Infants and young children treatment with oral ivermectin 200 ug/kg on days 1,2,8,9, aged<10 years should not be treated with lindane. Additional ivermectin treatment on days 22 and likely poses a low risk to pregnant women and is likely 29 might be required for severe cases (864). Lindane should compatible with breastfeeding (See Pediculosis pubis); however, be avoided because of the risks for neurotoxicity with heavy because of limited data regarding its use in pregnant and applications or denuded skin. Symptoms or signs persisting for scabies should receive the same treatment regimens as those >2 weeks can be attributed to several factors. Such persons should be managed in consultation with easily penetrate into thick, scaly skin of persons with crusted a specialist. In the absence of appropriate contact treatment and decontamination of bedding and clothing, persisting symptoms can be attributed to reinfection by family members or fomites. The documentation of findings, collection are preferred for the diagnostic evaluation of adolescent of nonmicrobiologic specimens for forensic purposes, and or adult sexual assault survivors. Care systems for survivors should be designed discharge, malodor, or itching is present. Evidentiary privilege against revealing presumptive treatment after a sexual assault is recommended: any aspect of the examination or treatment also is enforced in • An empiric antimicrobial regimen for chlamydia, most states. Such conditions are prevalent in the administered 1–2 and 4–6 months after the first dose. However, a receive postvaccination testing should receive a single post-assault examination presents an important opportunity to vaccine booster dose (see hepatitis B). Because female survivors also are at risk for acquiring administered through age 26 years. The efficacy of these regimens in preventing transmission from oral sex is substantially lower. Management of 4) whether mucosal lesions are present in the assailant or survivor; the psychosocial or legal aspects of the sexual assault or abuse and 5) any other characteristics of the assault, survivor, or assailant of children is beyond the scope of these guidelines. Postnatally close follow-up; 3) the benefit of adherence to recommended acquired gonorrhea and syphilis; chlamydia infection; and dosing; and 4) potential adverse effects of antiretrovirals. The general rule that sexually transmissible infections beyond • Use the algorithm to evaluate the survivor for the need for the neonatal period are evidence of sexual abuse has exceptions. Genital warts have been diagnosed in children after initial assessment and assess tolerance to medications. Although the exact requirements be conducted in a manner designed to minimize pain and differ by state, if a health-care provider has reasonable cause trauma to the child. Examinations and collection of vaginal to suspect child abuse, a report must be made. Health-care specimens in prepubertal children can be very uncomfortable providers should contact their state or local child-protection and should be performed by an experienced clinician to avoid service agency regarding child-abuse reporting requirements psychological and physical trauma to the child. Implications of commonly encountered sexually transmitted diagnosis, only tests with high specificities should be used. Alternatively, positive test results following a recent on Child Abuse and Neglect. Pediatrics exposure might represent the assailant’s secretions (but would 2005;116:506–12. A single evaluation might be sufficient if ** Report if evidence exists to suspect abuse, including history, physical examination, or other identified infections. Child has experienced penetration or has evidence • Visual inspection of the genital, perianal, and oral areas of recent or healed penetrative injury to the genitals, for genital discharge, odor, bleeding, irritation, warts, and anus, or oropharynx. For boys with a discharge or pain, genital itching or odor, urinary urethral discharge, a meatal specimen discharge is an symptoms, and genital lesions or ulcers). Because of the legal implications of a diagnosis of If a child has symptoms, signs, or evidence of an infection N. Because inadequate to evaluate prepubertal children for gonorrhea of the legal and psychosocial consequences of a false-positive and should not be used to diagnose or exclude gonorrhea. Isolates should be preserved to limited to inform recommendations, but no evidence enable additional or repeated testing. All positive treatment for children who have been sexually assaulted or specimens should be retained for additional testing. Such concerns might be recommended for children of either sex because the an appropriate indication for presumptive treatment in some likelihood of recovering chlamydia is low, perinatally settings and might be considered after all relevant specimens acquired infection might persist beyond infancy, and for diagnostic tests have been collected. Isolates should be preserved for vaccination of children who are victims of sexual abuse or additional testing. 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High prevalence of gonococcal for men who have sex with men: an integrated approach. Lancet and chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men with newly 2012;380:378–87. Epidemiologic characteristics of an ongoing syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men, San Francisco. Recommendations on the use of quadrivalent human Safer sex practices of lesbians and other women who have sex with papillomavirus vaccine in males: Advisory Committee on Immunization women. Recommendations for identification and public health availability of online sexual health information for lesbians. Is sexual contact a major mode of hepatitis and risk behaviours in women who have sex with women. Prevalent and incident hepatitis with men: implications for taking a sexual history.
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