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Optimization of horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine buy 100 mg avanafil fast delivery erectile dysfunction causes n treatment, with or without therapy for severe aplastic anemia based on clinical best 50mg avanafil impotence age 60, biologic purchase avanafil 100mg on-line erectile dysfunction treatment doctors in hyderabad, sirolimus: a prospective randomized study avanafil 200mg mastercard doctor's guide to erectile dysfunction. A randomized the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, controlled study in patients with newly diagnosed severe Hematology 2013 93 aplastic anemia receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG), cyclo- 32. Dezern AE, Luznik L, Fuchs EJ, Jones RJ, Brodsky RA. Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Weinstein B, Wu CO, Young NS. A perspective on the Activity of alemtuzumab monotherapy in treatment-naive, selection of unrelated donors and cord blood units for transplan- relapsed, and refractory severe acquired aplastic anemia. Alemtuzumab is safe and improved hematopoiesis in refractory aplastic anemia. N Engl effective as immunosuppressive treatment for aplastic anaemia J Med. A pilot dose-escalating study of ized trial from the EBMT SAA working party. High-dose cyclophospha- acting on the TERT gene, increase telomerase activity in human mide for severe aplastic anemia: long-term follow-up. High-dose cyclophospha- for aplastic anemia refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Valdez JM, Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Wu CO, Young NS, Walsh 24. Decreased infection-related mortality and improved sur- dose Cyclophosphamide for severe aplastic anemia is associ- vival in severe aplastic anemia in the past two decades. Clin ated with signiﬁcant toxicities and does not prevent relapse and Infect Dis. Should irradiated blood nucleated cell dose on overall survival of unrelated cord blood products be given routinely to all patients with aplastic anaemia transplantation for patients with severe acquired aplastic ane- undergoing immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte mia: a study by eurocord and the aplastic anemia working party globulin (ATG)? A survey from the European Group for Blood of the European group for blood and marrow transplantation. Iron chelation therapy with engraftment after reduced-intensity umbilical cord blood trans- deferasirox in patients with aplastic anemia: a subgroup analy- plantation for adult patients with severe aplastic anemia. Granulocyte transfu- of donor-directed, HLA-speciﬁc alloantibodies in recipients of sions in severe aplastic anemia: an eleven-year experience. Cord blood transplan- horse antilymphocyte globulin for severe aplastic anaemia. Marsh JC, Hows JM, Bryett KA, Al-Hashimi S, Fairhead SM, 30. Survival after antilymphocyte globulin cord blood with haploidentical CD34 cells improved trans- therapy for aplastic anemia depends on disease severity. Haploidentical quired aplastic anemia using a reduced-intensity conditioning: transplantation in patients with acquired aplastic anemia. Therefore, survival is no longer the sole concern and attention has to be paid to decreasing the incidence and severity of long-term complications. For patients without a sibling donor, transplantation from a well-matched unrelated donor can be considered after failure of a previous course of immunosuppressive therapy. After transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor or from an unrelated one, the use of peripheral blood stem cells must be strongly discouraged because they have been systematically associated with an increased incidence of chronic GVHD compared with the use of BM as a stem cell source, leading to an unacceptably higher risk of treatment-related mortality in this setting. For as yet unknown reasons, the age limit after which transplantation results are less satisfactory remains 40 years of age. Introduction BM transplantation (BMT) from a HLA-identical related donor is the treatment of choice for young patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Cyclophosphamide (CY) with anti-thymoglobulin (ATG) as a conditioning regimen and the association of cyclospo- rine (CsA) plus methotrexate (MTX) as GVHD prophylaxis repre- sent an effective treatment, with a rate of engraftment of 95% and overall survival near 90%. All deviations from this standard lead to poorer outcomes. Given these excellent results, survival is thus no more the sole concern in this situation and prevention/early Figure 1. Acquired SAA transplantations 1999-2009: the effect of detection of late complications after BMT is the main objective of donor type and matched sibling donors versus UDs. For patients who lack an HLA- data from the EBMT courtesy Prof A. However, 30% to 40% of the patients will eventually and IST is increasing with time in favor of HSCT over IST. A molecularly HLA- patients with an available matched sibling donor up to the age of 40 matched unrelated donor (UD) is in this situation the best alternative to 50 years. A curve illustrating the respective outcome for patients receiving transplantations either from a sibling donor or from an Transplantation in patients younger than 40 years unrelated one is shown in Figure 1. The use of other alternative Conditioning regimen with CY ATG. Being a non-neoplastic source of stem cells, including cord blood and a haploidentical hematologic disorder, the main goal of transplantation in aplastic familial donor, have been reviewed recently3 and will be discussed anemia is to achieve successful engraftment with no acute or by Kulasekararaj and Marsh elsewhere in this publication4 (these chronic GVHD. Despite signiﬁcant progress in conditioning regi- types of transplantation are usually regarded as a third-line treatment). Therefore, adequate Transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors lymphoablative and immuno-ablative components of the prepara- Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is the most likely curative tive regimen are important. The addition of ATG to CY given at a treatment option for SAA and should be the upfront therapeutic total dose of 200 mg/kg has been demonstrated to promote both option of choice for young patients. The outcome of allogeneic excellent engraftment and long-term outcome. In a nonrandomized HSCT (and of immunosuppressive therapy) has improved remark- trial, this combination resulted in a lower incidence of GVHD and ably during the last decade because of improvements in all aspects improved survival compared with historical controls who received of transplantation, including supportive care. It is noteworthy that one prospective random- matched sibling transplantation to an older patient who is at higher ized trial involving 134 patients did not show a signiﬁcant beneﬁt risk of GVHD and therefore higher morbidity and mortality rate from the addition of ATG,7 which nevertheless improved the must be weighed carefully against the beneﬁts of IST, which may long-term survival rate by 10% (thus raising the power of the trial to produce a sustained remission but is associated with late clonal detect a statistical signiﬁcance). Prevention of graft failure can be abnormalities such as myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid accomplished by the use of other more intense conventional leukemia. In a CIBMTR analysis, the age at transplantation beyond conditioning, including radiation-based regimens. However, this which outcomes differ were analyzed and risk factors that may be must be strongly discouraged due to higher transplantation-related modiﬁed to improve survival after HLA-matched sibling donor long-term morbidity and mortality. Use of other conditioning transplantation for SAA including older patients were identiﬁed. Patients older than 40 years were more likely to have had IST, poor performance scores, and a longer interval from diagnosis to Use of BM as the source of stem cell. Neutrophil recovery was similar in all age groups, must be used as the stem cell source for all patients with aplastic but patients older than 40 years had a lower likelihood of platelet anemia, because the use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) is recovery compared with patients younger than 20 years but not associated with increased risk of chronic GVHD. Despite earlier compared with those 20 to 40 years of age. Compared with patients engraftment with the use of PBSCs, a joint European Group for younger than 20 years, mortality risks were higher in patients older Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)/Center for Interna- than 40 years and those 20 to 40 years of age. Risks were also higher tional Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) retrospec- in patients with poor performance scores and when the interval from tive analysis suggests inferior outcome with the use of PBSCs in this diagnosis to transplantation was longer than 3 months, suggesting disease, particularly in young patients. Adequate BM stem cell dose CY ATG have also been considered. For patients between the is expected to be associated with improved outcome. At least ages of 30 and 50 years who are potential transplantation candi- 3 108 mononuclear cells/kg BM stem cell dose or 2 106 CD34 dates, the best conditioning regimen is not known. Patients who are cells/kg should be given because a lower stem cell dose increases older than 40 years and who are medically ﬁt enough for BMT may the risk of graft failure. Ad- needs conﬁrmation in larger studies, ideally from an international equate posttransplantation immunosuppression is important not randomized study. The combination of CsA and short-course MTX should be ducted by the EBMT and the CIBMTR found that the use of PBSCs considered the standard posttransplantation immunosuppression. In was associated with an increased risk of chronic GVHD and lower a prospective randomized trial comparing CsA MTX with CsA 5-year overall survival compared with BM grafts. Although several alone, the 1-year transplantation-related mortality rates for patients studies have conﬁrmed that HSCT after conditioning with given CsA MTX or CsA alone were 3% and 15%, respectively. Few reports have exception of the Seattle and Hospital Saint Louis cohorts. Slow and linear taper of CsA should be tissue dysfunction, delayed infections, and secondary cancers. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Deeg et al evaluated 212 patients with aplastic anemia receiving transplanta- Current issues in transplantation from sibling donors tions who survived more than 2 years and who have been followed Transplantation in patients older than 40 years. Therefore, in older patients, the best physical and psychosocial health, social interactions, memory and ﬁrst-line treatment option for SAA is debatable and has commonly concentration, and overall severity of symptoms. Survival probabili- led to the practice of offering IST as ﬁrst-line treatment to older ties at 20 years were 89% for patients without (n 125) and 69% patients despite the availability of a matched sibling. All patients had normal tion is offered after failure of 1 to 2 courses of IST. Skin problems occurred in 14%, cata- transplantation, survival after IST is associated with age. Older racts in 12%, lung disease in 24%, and bone and joint problems in patients who respond to IST have a 5-year survival rate of 50%, 18% of patients. Eleven patients (12%) developed a solid tumor which is considerably lower than the 90% seen in younger malignancy and 19% of patients experienced depression. At 2 years, and iron overload, prolonged neutropenia and infections, and 83% of patients had returned to school or work; the proportion possibly poor performance scores. The dilemma of offering a increased to 90% by 20 years. At least half of the patients preserved Hematology 2013 83 or regained the ability to become pregnant or father children. The improvement Patients rated their quality of life as excellent and symptoms as in HLA-typing techniques that allows better selection of UDs has minimal or mild.
The results of study selection are outlined in Figure 1 order avanafil online now impotence women. Dossiers were received for Update 4 from the manufacturers of almotriptan buy discount avanafil 100 mg line erectile dysfunction journals, ® frovatriptan buy cheap avanafil 100mg line erectile dysfunction zoloft, rizatriptan buy generic avanafil 50 mg line impotence treatment options, sumatriptan, and the fixed-dose combination product, Treximet (sumatriptan/naproxen). Triptans Page 14 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Figure 1. Study selection aa 1683 (2671683 (267 ): Total number of): Total number of citations identified from searchescitations identified from searches 1229 (217) excluded at title/abstract level 454 (50) articles retrieved for full- text evaluation 356 (14) articles excluded at full-text level 98 (36) included studies: • 33 (6) head-to-head trials • 57 (25) placebo-controlled trials • 1 (1) open-label, nonrandomized study • 7 (4) systematic reviews/meta-analyses a Parentheses show search results new to Update 4. Triptans Page 15 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Summary of Findings Efficacy/effectiveness Eletriptan • Direct comparisons o Evidence from 5 head-to-head trials was insufficient to make conclusions about comparative efficacy of eletriptan and encapsulated sumatriptan, naratriptan, and zolmitriptan due to the differential effects associated with use of unilateral encapsulation in these trials. Triptans Page 16 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project • Placebo-controlled trials o Consistency (1 trial): Two-hour response rates were consistently greater for rizatriptan 10 mg than placebo across 4 headaches. Rate of 24-hour sustained pain-free was reported in only 1 trial and was superior for rizatriptan. The 2 triptans were similar on satisfaction, pain-free, and functional disability outcomes, however. Meaningful interpretation of other unadjusted outcomes is not possible. Triptans Page 17 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project • Placebo-controlled trials o Early intervention (1 trial): Zolmitriptan oral tablet 2. Twenty-four-hour pain-free outcomes were not reported. For the orally disintegrating tablet and nasal spray forms, we also found no evidence on early treatment of mild migraine or in consistency of treatment across multiple attacks. Rate of normal function was higher and number of hours in nonwork activities was lower for reformulated sumatriptan 100 mg as well. Insufficient data were available for indirect comparison of rates of 24-hour sustained pain-free. We found no head-to-head trials comparing sumatriptan nasal spray with another triptan. Frovatriptan • Direct comparisons: None were included. One head-to-head trial that directly compared frovatriptan 2. Treximet was superior to monotherapy with reformulated sumatriptan 85 mg in 24-hour pain-free, return to normal function, overall productivity, and patient satisfaction in 2 trials conducted as part of its new drug application. The rates of patients with a sustained pain-free response through 24 hours ® postdose in at least 2 of the first 3 attacks treated with Treximet ranged from 14% to 15% across the 2 trials. Harms • Monotherapy compared with monotherapy: There were no consistent differences between triptan monotherapies in rates of overall adverse events or in rates of individual adverse events, including chest pain/tightness or central nervous system effects. Triptans Page 20 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project • Fixed-dose combination therapy with reformulated sumatriptan 85 mg/naproxen 500 mg ® (Treximet ) compared with co-administration of individual components: We found no head-to-head trials that reported harms outcomes. Effectiveness/efficacy and harms in subgroups • There is no consistent evidence that one triptan has any particular advantage or disadvantage over another in any subgroup based on age, race, gender, prophylactic treatment, or menstruation-associated migraine. How do effectiveness and efficacy outcomes (reduced severity and duration of symptoms, functional outcomes, quality of life, etc) differ for adult patients with migraine? Monotherapy compared with monotherapy Overview 19-50 We included 32 head-to-head trials. The majority involved comparisons of the conventional 19-23 24-27 tablet form of sumatriptan with other triptans, including almotriptan, eletriptan, 29, 30 31-37 38, 39 naratriptan, rizatriptan, rizatriptan orally disintegrating tablet, subcutaneous 42, 43 44-46 49 sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, and zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet. In addition, 1 single-blind, crossover trial of 42 adults selected from the Headache Center (A Gemelli Hospital, Rome) compared almotriptan 12. However, we rated it poor quality due to multiple flaws, including lack of blinding of outcome assessors and exclusion of 28% of patients who failed to complete the trial for unspecified reasons. We found no head-to-head trials involving comparisons with frovatriptan or reformulated sumatriptan. Most of the head-to-head trials have been previously analyzed in a prior systematic review, the findings of which contrasted with separate meta-analyses of placebo-controlled 11, 12 trials. Additional meta-analyses of indirect comparisons based on placebo-controlled trials of 51, 52 triptans were also identified. Only 1 of these reviews used a set of predefined, explicit 52 criteria (the Jadad score) to assess the internal validity of trials. The goal of the review was to infer the relative effectiveness of different drugs, including triptans, for the treatment of moderate to severe migraine by using pooled results from placebo-controlled trials. Thus, the authors relied mainly on studies that compared a triptan with a placebo, rather than on direct comparison studies. The investigators selected 5 efficacy measures and 3 adverse effect measures for comparison. Fifty-four trials, most of which were not head-to-head trials, were included in the meta-analysis. The inclusion criteria specified that trials had to be published in peer reviewed journals except for trials of eletriptan, for which unpublished data were obtained directly from the manufacturer. The main value of their analysis was that it included the results of all known head-to-head trials, regardless of quality and publication status. Because the analysis was based on original data, the authors were able to calculate the results for endpoints that were not reported in publications, Triptans Page 21 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project such as the 24-hour response rate. The investigators included 53 clinical trials of triptans, including 12 unpublished trials, all of which were identified by contacting pharmaceutical companies and investigators. Most of the included trials compared a triptan with a placebo, rather than another triptan. Using original data from the manufacturers (except for the trials of frovatriptan), the investigators compared the pooled results for each drug and dosage, using the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg as the reference standard. This meta-analysis was comprehensive, examined important outcome measures, and applied statistical methods appropriately, but the strategy for pooling studies had important weaknesses: The investigators gave equal weight to the results of all studies without considering their quality and pooled recent studies of newer drugs with older ones that were conducted under different circumstances. Eletriptan Direct comparisons We included head-to-head trials that compared eletriptan 40 mg with the encapsulated 24-26 28 conventional oral tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg, encapsulated naratriptan 2. Eletriptan 40 mg compared with the encapsulated conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg. Three fair-quality trials compared eletriptan 40 mg with the conventional 24-26 tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg. In these studies, sumatriptan was put in a capsule to make it look like eletriptan so that the study could be double-blind. At 2 hours, a significantly greater proportion of patients were pain-free with eletriptan 40 mg than with the encapsulated 24, 26 conventional oral tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg in 2 of 3 trials. When we pooled data from all 3 trials, the combined rates were 35% (376/1063) for eletriptan 40 mg and 25% (272/1076) for the encapsulated conventional oral tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg, with a relative risk of 1. Two-hour rates of normal function were also significantly greater for eletriptan 40 mg than the encapsulated 24, 26 conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg in 2 of 3 trials: 62% (569/913) for eletriptan 40 mg and 56% (457/819) for the encapsulated conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg, with a relative risk of 1. We found rates of 24-hour sustained pain-free in only 1 trial, in which eletriptan 40 mg was superior to the encapsulated conventional tablet 24 form of sumatriptan 100 mg (24% compared with 14%; P<0. When Ferrari and 11 24 colleagues combined these data with unpublished data for 24-hour sustained pain-free 25 outcomes from an additional trial, the resulting direct difference of –8 (95% CI, –14 to –3) still showed that eletriptan 40 mg was superior to the encapsulated conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg. Findings from these trials engendered debate over whether encapsulation of the comparator triptan for blinding purposes suppressed their normal absorption rate and usual effectiveness. This concern has led to multiple studies comparing pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan tablets with and without encapsulation. In vitro and in vivo dissolution testing by the manufacturers of eletriptan and the 53-55 conventional tablet form of sumatriptan have produced conflicting results. In an in vitro 54 dissolution study funded by the manufacturer of eletriptan, no significant difference in dissolution rate (estimated as area under the curve) was found for the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg, with or without encapsulation based on the ratio of geometric means of 0. However, an in vivo study (Fuseau 2001), funded by the manufacturer of the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan, showed absorption was delayed between 0 to 2 Triptans Page 22 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project hours after dosing (AUC2) when the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 50 mg was encapsulated compared to when it was not encapsulated in a sample of 26 healthy adults (geometric mean treatment ratio 0. The Fuseau trial has been criticized by an investigator sponsored by the manufacturer of eletriptan for using twice as much magnesium stearate to encapsulate sumatriptan than was used in the original head- to-head trials of eletriptan and suggested that the greater quantity magnesium stearate could have hampered capsule dissolution and confounded absorption. Also, it is unclear why the Fuseau and colleagues evaluated only the 50 mg dose of the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan and not also the 100 mg dose or why they used a 90% confidence interval to evaluate statistical significance, rather than the more common and more stringent 95% confidence interval. Subsequently, in another study funded by the manufacturer of eletriptan involving 10 healthy volunteers, the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg and encapsulated sumatriptan 100 mg were found to be similar in elapsed time to initial capsule disintegration (6 minutes compared with 5 minutes) and in mean time to complete disintegration (18 ± 14 minutes 53 compared with 16 ± 7 minutes). Meta-analyses have also been conducted to compare the 2-hour pain relief and pain-free outcomes from head-to-head trials of eletriptan and the encapsulated conventional tablet form of sumatriptan to those from all other trials of either eletriptan or the unencapsulated conventional 11, 56, 57 tablet form of sumatriptan, respectively. But, none has conclusively found that the clinical efficacy of the conventional oral tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg on 2-hour pain-relief or pain- free outcomes was significantly decreased in trials where it was encapsulated compared with trials where it was not encapsulated. Because the eletriptan-encapsulated sumatriptan comparator trials were all 24-26 conducted by Pfizer, this provided an opportunity for qualitative indirect comparison of average absolute 2-hour pain-free rate for the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg with and without encapsulation. For the outcome of 2-hour pain-free, the overall average absolute rate for sumatriptan 100 mg was 29% (95% CI, 27 to 31) and was 8% (95% CI, 7 to 9) for placebo. In the Pfizer-conducted eletriptan-sumatriptan comparator trials, however, Ferrari and colleagues found lower average absolute 2-hour pain-free rates for encapsulated sumatriptan 100 mg and for placebo, respectively. Although inconclusive, the findings of Ferrari and colleagues suggest the presence of heterogeneity between Pfizer-conducted and other company- conducted trials that could have influenced 2-hour pain-free results. However, because the pattern of non-encapsulated placebo was similar to that of encapsulated sumatriptan – lower efficacy in Pfizer-conducted trials – use of encapsulation for blinding could not be the only source of heterogeneity in these trials. One meta-analysis compared the time course of response for the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan with and without encapsulation using model-based random-effects logistic 56 regression techniques and data from 19 head-to-head and placebo-controlled trials. No significant difference was found at any time point between 0 and 4 hours in proportion of patients who achieved pain relief for the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan with or without encapsulation. In 2005, we conducted our own meta-analysis to compare the mean absolute rates of 2- hour pain relief and pain-free for eletriptan and the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan. We Triptans Page 23 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project compared data from head-to-head trials of eletriptan 40 mg and the encapsulated conventional 24-26 tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg with data from all other available head-to-head trials and placebo-controlled trials involving either triptan. Pooled absolute rates of 2-hour pain relief and absence of pain are shown in Table 3. For the conventional tablet form of sumatriptan 100 mg, the mean rates of 2-hour pain relief and pain-free were numerically lower when it was encapsulated compared to when it was not encapsulated, but overlapping confidence intervals suggest that the difference is not statistically significant.
Studies to identify the presence of associated with initial progression of KS as a manifestation of an HHV8 either from tissue or peripheral blood should be performed discount avanafil online mastercard most effective erectile dysfunction drugs. Immunohistochemical staining for LANA will identify the presence of HHV8 in 10% to 30% of lymphocytes in the mantle zone purchase avanafil 50mg otc erectile dysfunction 23. IFN- generic avanafil 200mg without prescription impotence grounds for divorce, perhaps functioning as an angiogenesis inhibitor cheap 200mg avanafil otc erectile dysfunction doctors in cleveland, was found to be an active agent in KS Treatment of MCD very early in the HIV epidemic15; however, toxicities, use of cART, Chemotherapy. A review of all MCD cases reported in the and availability of other effective agents have limited its use in literature including patients treated with vinblastine; CHOP (cyclo- recent years. A case could be observed, most were relatively short lived and incomplete. Anecdotal case reports have demonstrated some activity of completed enrollment through the AIDS Malignancy Consortium IFN as a single agent. Although active lytic viral replication activation by the HHV8 GPCR with sirolimus has proven to be is highest in MCD and disease ﬂare is usually associated with an active in KS associated with renal transplantation20 for those who do increase in HHV8 viremia that is responsive to anti-herpesvirus not respond to reduction in immunosuppression. A series of 3 cases MCD reportedly responded to ganciclovir. Those cases occurring in the setting of HIV sponses were not observed in 5 patients treated with cidofovir. Because the pathogenesis of MCD reﬂects HHV8 Cytologic examination of ﬂuid demonstrates large cells that may infection of B cells in the mantle zone, the use of an anti-CD20 have either an immunoblastic or plasmablastic appearance. The disease most frequently occurs in HIV-infected patients resulted in resolution of clinical symptoms and laboratory individuals with relatively advanced immunodeﬁciency and often in abnormalities in 20 patients and 70% had radiographic response. A second prospective trial surface or cytoplasmic Ig. The tumor cells are typically positive for demonstrated remission at 60 days in 22 of 24 patients treated with 4 CD45, CD30, CD38, and CD138,33 suggesting plasmablastic differ- weekly doses of rituximab. In a review of 61 cases of PEL reported in the literature, 93% were CD45-positive, 38/52 (73%) were CD30-positive, and T- In a multicenter retrospective study, 52 patients with HIV- and B-cell markers were expressed in 4. The pleural space is the most therapy alone or anti-herpesvirus therapy. Twenty-seven to 71% of patients have a prior provide the best evidence that rituximab, either alone or in diagnosis of KS. By deﬁnition, all patients have stage IV disease combination with chemotherapy, represents the best option for and International Prognostic Index score is not predictive of clinical ﬁrst-line treatment for MCD in patients with HIV infection. It outcome35 There is no standard of care and there are no prospective should be noted that patients with MCD and concurrent KS may trials of any treatment for this entity, although CHOP-like chemo- experience signiﬁcant progression of KS after rituximab therapy. Immediately after administration of this human- ate. Other regimens included dose-reduced CHOP (n 6), IFN- ized monoclonal anti-IL-6 receptor antibody to 7 HIV-negative (n 2), IFN with cidofovir (n 3), and no therapy (n 1). With a patients, fever and fatigue disappeared and anemia and serum levels median followup of 3. For 14 patients who achieved complete response, the 1-year 3 months, patients had reductions in lymphadenopathy and hypergam- disease-free survival rate was 78. The only independent poor prognostic factors were Eastern Coopera- tive Oncology Group score of 2 and absence of prior cART. These patients had HHV-8 viral lytic activity and cytokine patterns, The role of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell including marked elevation of vIL-6 and hIL-6, that resembled transplantation in PEL is unclear, because only 2 case reports have those observed in patients with MCD. The diagnosis is made based been reported in patients with relapsed/refractory disease, one upon the ﬁnding of MCD-like clinical manifestations (eg, fever, 33 successful (HIV-negative) and one not successful (HIV-positive). Because this is a newly described syndrome, 36 cultured PEL cells, reactivation of HHV8 lytic gene expression there is no reported therapeutic experience. However, treatment and cell death in mice with human PEL xenografts, and increased modalities described for MCD, such as rituximab, should be 37 survival in SCID mice inoculated with UM-PEL-1 cells, bort- considered if the diagnosis seems likely. The combination of in the posttransplantation setting and in elderly patients in areas bortezomib with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat was 106 American Society of Hematology shown to potently reactivate HHV-8 lytic replication, inducing PEL oncogene, as identiﬁed by gene expression proﬁling, is essen- cell death and prolonging mouse survival in a xenograft model. Pantanowit L, Schwartz EJ, Dezube BJ, Kohler S, Dorfman RF, prevent accumulation of effusions, but clinical data are lacking. C-Kit (CD117) Expression in AIDS-related, classic, Two cases in which disease responded to cART alone in patients and African endemic Kaposi sarcoma. Appl Immunohistochem with PEL have also been reported. Li-Wu Gian, Jianping Xie, Fengchun Ye, Shou-Jiang Gao. Given the low level of lytic infection in patients with PEL, the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection promotes inva- expectation of success with anti-herpesvirus therapy is low. There sion of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells by inducing have, however, been some isolated reports of success with intracavitary matrix metalloproteinases. Fan W, Bubman D, Chadburn A, Harrington WJ, Cesarman E, concomitant activation of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and Knowles DM. Distinct subsets of primary effusion lymphoma NF- B. Long-term efﬁcacy on HHV8-associated neoplasms represent a unique group of rare Kaposi’s sarcoma of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a malignancies. Although we have yet to fully understand the cohort of HIV-positive patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS- many of the genetic and biochemical observations that have been associated Kaposi’s sarcoma: implications for the design of described, targeted approaches based on these ﬁndings show signs therapeutic trials in patients with advanced, symptomatic of success, particularly in KS and MCD. Krown SE, Lee JY, Lan L, Fischl MA, Ambinder R, Roenn JHV. Interferon-alpha2b with protease inhibitor-based antiretro- viral therapy in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma: Disclosures an AIDS Malignancy Consortium Phase I Trial. J Acquir Conﬂict-of-interest disclosure: The author declares no competing Immune Deﬁc Syndr. Randomized phase II trial of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor Correspondence COL-3 in AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma: an AIDS Malig- Lawrence Kaplan, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Box 0324, nancy Consortium Study. UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94143; Phone: 415-353-2421; Fax: 415-353- 17. Koon HB, Honda K, Lee JY, Christner SM, Egorin MJ, Noy A. Chang YI, Cesarman MS, Pessin F, Lee J, Culpepper DM, et al. Phase II AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) trial of imatinib Identiﬁcation of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS- in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). Lenalidomide in of human cytokine and cytokine response pathway genes by treating AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. KSHV infection and the pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma in renal-transplant recipients. Stebbing J, Pantanowitz L, Dayyani F, Sullivan RJ, Bower M, crobiol. Sodhi A, Montaner S, Patel V, Zohar M, Bais C, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus G protein-coupled 23. Mylona EE, Baraboutis IG, Lekakis LJ, Georgiou O, Papasta- receptor up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expres- mopoulous V, Skoutelis A. Multicentric Castleman’s disease in sion and secretion through mitogen-activated protein kinase HIV infection: a systematic review of the literature. Guo HG, Sadowska M, Reid W, Tschachler E, Hayward G, HIV-associated multicentric Castleman’s disease. Kaposi’s sarcoma-like tumors in a human herpesvirus AIDS. Kaposi’s sarcoma- Castleman’s disease in HIV infection: A clinical and pathologi- associated herpesvirus-induced upregulation of the c-kit proto- cal study of 20 patients. Efﬁcacy of bort- with rituximab in patients with HIV-associated multicentric ezomib in a direct xenograft model of primary effusion Castleman’s disease. Bortezomib (PS- zidovudine plus valganciclovir for Kaposi sarcoma herpesvi- 341) in patients with human herpesvirus 8-associated primary rus-associated multicentric Castleman disease: a pilot study effusion lymphoma. Prospective study of growth and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in KSHV/HHV- rituximab in chemotherapy-dependent human immunodeﬁ- 8-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) in primary effusion lymphoma (KSHV) associated multi-centric Castleman disease (MCD). Efﬁcacious protea- Castleman’s disease by humanized anit-interleukin-6 receptor some/HDAC inhibitor combination therapy for primary effu- antibody therapy. Efﬁcacious protea- related systemic inﬂammatory syndrome in patients co-infected some/HDAC inhibitor combination therapy for primary effu- with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and HIV but sion lymphoma. Primary effusion primary effusion lymphoma with highly active antiviral therapy lymphoma. A lymphoma: a series of 4 cases and review of the literature with non-chemotherapy treatment of a primary effusion lymphoma: emphasis on cytomorphologic and immunocytochemical differ- durable remission after intracavitary cidofovir in HIV negative ential diagnosis. Hocqueloux L, Agbalika F, Oksenhelder E, Molina JM Long- outcome of human herpesvirus 8-associated primary effusion term remission of an AIDS-related primary effusion lymphoma lymphoma in patients with AIDS. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induced apoptosis in primary effusion lymphoma through (PS-341) inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in primary azidothymidine-mediated inhibition of NF-kappa B. The eradication of H pylori using antibiotics is successful in 60% to 80% of affected patients.
There are several causes of ovarian disease postmenopausal bleeding (see Chapter 10); in • Late menopause approximately 5–20% order discount avanafil erectile dysfunction and diabetes, carcinoma of the endo- • Patients with previously diagnosed breast cancer 3 metrium is diagnosed buy 100 mg avanafil otc erectile dysfunction vyvanse. The breast carcinoma ET should be measured and an increased ET should Methods for screening in these patients include alert the medical attendant of the presence of an serial transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and endome- endometrial carcinoma (Figure 6) discount 100 mg avanafil mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment in bangladesh. In the postmenopausal patient who is not taking hormone replacement treatment the endometrial thickness (ET) found on TVU should be <4mm (Figure 4) purchase avanafil on line amex erectile dysfunction treatment abu dhabi. Above this threshold of 4mm an endometrial sampling in the symptomatic patient (with vaginal bleeding) is indicated. Endometrial sampling should render a histological specimen. A cytological speci- men, if abnormal, needs to be followed by an endometrial sampling for histological analysis. Currently, many devices for out-patient histologi- cal endometrial sampling are available. The most popular are the Pipelle, manual vacuum aspiration (MVA; smallest cannula) and the Endosampler (Figure 5). All these devices work on the principle of scraping and subsequent suction of endometrial tissue and can be used during an office procedure. Figure 5 An Endosampler Non-disposable instruments such as small curettes work just on the principle of scraping tissue and are often painful for the patient when used during an office procedure. Courtesy of Dr Dr Douglas Dumbrill Douglas Dumbrill 359 GYNECOLOGY FOR LESS-RESOURCED LOCATIONS In postmenopausal patients where the ET is Table 3 Staging for carcinoma of the endometrium <4mm other causes for postmenopausal bleeding (FIGO 2009) should be entertained. In postmenopausal patients Stage I Tumor confined to the corpus uteri where the ET is >4mm the index of suspicion should be high for an endometrial carcinoma. An IA No or less than half myometrial invasion endometrial biopsy is indicated to confirm or ex- IB Invasion equal to or more than half of the myometrium clude the diagnosis of an endometrial carcinoma. In cases where access to the uterine cavity is not poss- Stage II Tumor invades cervical stroma, but does not ible, a hysteroscopy (if available) together with extend beyond the uterus endometrial sampling under a general anesthetic is Stage III Local and/or regional spread of the tumor mandatory. IIIA Tumor invades the serosa of the corpus uteri and/or adnexae Staging IIIB Vaginal and/or parametrial involvement IIIC Metastases to pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph Endometrial carcinoma spreads according to a nodes number of routes: IIIC1 Positive pelvic nodes 1. Direct extension to adjacent structures such as IIIC2 Positive para-aortic lymph nodes with or without myometrium, fallopian tubes and cervix. Spread of cancer cells through the fallopian Stage IV Tumor invades bladder and/or bowel mucosa, tubes may explain ovarian metastasis and the and/or distant metastases presence of malignant cells in the peritoneal IVA Tumor invasion of bladder and/or bowel mucosa washings. IVB Distant metastases, including intra-abdominal 3. Lymphatic spread to pelvic and para-aortic metastases and/or inguinal lymph nodes lymph nodes. Hematogenous spread occurs which is less Either G1, G2, or G3. Endocervical glandular involvement common and may include spread to liver, brain only should be considered as stage I and no longer as stage and lungs. Note: positive cytology has to be reported separately without changing the stage. Until 1988, the FIGO staging classification for endometrial cancer was clinical. Patients with a grade 1 cancer, performed by the American Gynecologic Onco- which was limited to the endometrium had no logy Group (GOG) published results of the surgical involvement of para-aortic nodes, while patients pathologic spread patterns of endometrial cancer. Patients metrium had a 23% incidence of para-aortic lymph with endocervical involvement were excluded node metastasis. All patients had a total abdominal ing changed in 1988 from a clinical stage to a surgi- hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy cal staging including for the first time assessment of (TAH-BSO) in addition to a selective pelvic and the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. A further para-aortic lymphadenectomy and collection of refinement took place in 2009 when the latest peritoneal cytology. It was shown that high-risk FIGO staging was published (Table 3). The grade of Preoperative work-up the tumor and depth of myometrial invasion were shown to be independent significant factors for After a histological diagnosis of endometrial carci- pelvic lymph node involvement. In patients with a noma has been made a number of relatively simple grade 1 tumor and no invasion of the myometrium, preoperative investigations should be done. These no involvement of pelvic lymph nodes was found. Where indicated and experts to perform • Baseline CA-125 (if available) surgery are available, a pelvic lymphadenectomy • Random glucose. The indications for a pelvic lymphadenec- Radiological: tomy include known high-risk factors: • X-ray chest • Grade 3 with or without >50% myometrial • Pelvic ultrasound if that has not been done yet invasion • Where available, advanced imaging like a contrast • Grades 1 or 2 with >50% myometrial invasion enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of • Type of histology (uterine serous papillary carci- abdomen and pelvis may be considered. There is randomized evidence that have a postoperative course complicated by wound the lymph node dissection itself is not curative. Factors that will influence the incidence of reasoning behind lymphadenectomy, however, is postoperative wound sepsis are: body mass index that such a procedure should identify the patients (BMI), low albumin, pre-existing pulmonary with systemic disease. In cases of positive lymph disease and previous abdominal surgery. In these nodes one may consider local as well as systemic patients extra care should be given to prolonged treatment such as pelvic radiotherapy and chemo- antibiotic cover and wound draining. Alternatively, in patients with high-risk tors (surgery for malignant disease, obesity, diabetes factors who are found to have negative lymph and hypertension) put these patients at risk for nodes after a full lymphadenectomy can be re- postoperative thromboembolic complications and assured and only brachytherapy may be considered. The use of pelvic radiotherapy may result in long- term side-effects such as radiation induced cystitis and proctitis. Treatment If a facility for frozen section is available, frozen The cornerstone for treatment of patients with section should be done in patients with a pre- endometrial cancer is surgery. The most commonly operative diagnosis of complex atypical hyperplasia, used incisions are a Pfannenstiel or a low trans- and grade 1 and 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. However, if there is a suspicion or a The pathologist should assess the histological type, diagnosis of an advanced-stage cancer or a high- the grade, the depth of myometrium invasion and grade tumor such as serous papillary or clear cell cervical involvement. If frozen section indicates carcinoma a mid-line incision may be indicated for >50% myometrium invasion, grade 3 and/or cer- better access. This incision will facilitate an omen- vical stromal involvement, a pelvic lymphadenec- tectomy and/or a para-aortic lymphadenectomy tomy may be performed. If a frozen section facility and/or removal of abdominal metastatic deposits. After enter- macroscopically to judge whether the patient is at ing the abdomen careful exploration of the abdo- risk for lymph node metastases. This is followed by washings of In patients with extrauterine disease cytoreduc- the pouch of Douglas for cytological examination. BSO should be performed (see Chapter 19 on Patients with early-stage clear cell carcinoma or uterine fibroids on how to do a TAH-BSO). The most relapses in early and para-aortic lymph node sampling and biopsies. This is a favorable An omentectomy and cytoreduction are recom- location for salvage therapy with external and intra- mended in patients with advanced-stage endo- cavitary radiotherapy, surgery, or both, but this can metrioid cancer, clear cell carcinoma or patients often only be done in special centers in resource- with uterine serous papillary carcinoma. A lymphadenectomy is factors may be followed up only, as in this group indicated in these patients In cases where bulky the prognosis is very good (Table 5). The PORTEC 2 study demonstrated that dicated in patients with co-morbid disease where a pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) did not laparotomy maybe hazardous. Several (retrospec- render a better survival or disease-free survival tive) studies have demonstrated that a vaginal compared to vaginal brachytherapy only5. Of hysterectomy does not have a negative effect on interest is that the patients in the PORTEC 2 study prognosis. Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterec- did not undergo a lymphadenectomy, which tomy (LAVH) and BSO with or without pelvic suggests that rate of positive nodes in patients with lymphadenectomy has been shown to be an excel- high-intermediate-risk factors is relatively low. Several studies have demonstrated that a tion risk groups have been identified for stage I endo- laparoscopic approach does not compromise the metrial cancer prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer, with Low risk: stage IA, grade 1 and 2, endometrioid adeno- probably a more rapid recovery period and less carcinoma postoperative complications, which is, considering the profile of these patients, a distinct advantage. A Intermediate risk: number a limiting factors such as obesity and an en- 1. Stage I: • moderate to poorly differentiated tumor (grade 3) larged uterus may be contraindications for laparo- • presence of lympho-vascular invasion scopic surgery. A laparoscopic approach requires • outer third myometrial invasion (stage IB) special training and skills. Age ≥50 years with any two risk factors listed above; or is longer compared to an open approach and it is 3. Age ≥70 with any risk factor listed above still shown to be the more expensive procedure. Histological evaluation of specimens is manda- High risk: stage IB plus grade 3, non-endometrioid histology tory to determine possible adjuvant treatment. The histopathologist should report on grade or differen- tiation, size of the tumor, depth of myometrium invasion, lymph–vascular space invasion, cervical Table 5 Overview of treatment in stage I endometrial involvement and adnexal involvement. Although 7 cancer risk according to groups in Table 4 in the latest 2009 FIGO staging classification posi- tive washings do not change the stage, the presence Risk group Adjuvant treatment of malignant cells in the pouch of Douglas washing Low risk No adjuvant treatment should be reported (Table 4). Intermediate risk Brachytherapy • With 2 high-risk factors Adjuvant treatment (age >50 years) • With 1 risk factor (age Although in many low-resource countries, radio- >70 years) therapy is not easily available, it may be considered High risk External beam radio- for certain high-risk patients. The adjuvant treat- therapy and brachytherapy ment should be individually tailored. Low-risk 362 Cancer of the Uterine Corpus Risk factors for recurrent disease in stage I endo- including cancer, hypertension and diabetes. In metrial cancer include grade 3 tumors with infiltra- transitional but increasingly also in low-resource tion into the outer half of the myometrium. These settings a large proportion of society tend to be patients are certainly at risk for positive pelvic and obese. Communities need to be sensitized about or para-aortic lymph nodes.