By M. Malir. University of Missouri-Kansas City. 2019.
Extensive clinical experience with amphotericin has not documented teratogenicity purchase extra super avana 260 mg fast delivery impotence pronunciation. Neonates born to women on chronic amphotericin B at delivery should be evaluated for renal dysfunction and hypokalemia discount extra super avana 260 mg on-line erectile dysfunction pills supplements. Flucytosine was teratogenic in animal studies buy extra super avana australia impotence guide, and human experience is limited to case reports and small series discount extra super avana 260mg online erectile dysfunction drugs and infertility. Congenital malformations similar to those observed in animals, including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, have been reported in infants born to mothers who received fluconazole at doses of ≥400 mg/ day or more through or beyond the first trimester of pregnancy. Use of fluconazole in the first trimester should be considered only if the benefits clearly outweigh risks. For pregnant women, amphotericin should be continued throughout the first trimester. After the first trimester, switching to oral fluconazole may be considered, if clinically appropriate. Voriconazole and posaconazole are teratogenic and embryotoxic in animal studies, voriconazole at doses lower than recommended human doses; there are no adequate controlled studies in humans. Recommendations for Treating Cryptococcosis (page 1 of 2) Treating Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment for cryptococcosis consists of 3 phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy. The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992-2000. Relationship of cerebrospinal fluid pressure, fungal burden and outcome in patients with cryptococcal meningitis undergoing serial lumbar punctures. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Successful use of amphotericin B lipid complex in the treatment of cryptococcosis. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Dromer F, Mathoulin-Pelissier S, Launay O, Lortholary O, French Cryptococcosis Study G. Determinants of disease presentation and outcome during cryptococcosis: the CryptoA/D study. Dromer F, Bernede-Bauduin C, Guillemot D, Lortholary O, French Cryptococcosis Study G. Fungal burden, early fungicidal activity, and outcome in cryptococcal meningitis in antiretroviral-naive or antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with amphotericin B or fluconazole. Combination flucytosine and high-dose fluconazole compared with fluconazole monotherapy for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized trial in Malawi. A controlled trial of fluconazole or amphotericin B to prevent relapse of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Voriconazole treatment for less-common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Activity of posaconazole in the treatment of central nervous system fungal infections. Management of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with Cryptococcal meningitis. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology: Official Publication of the International Retrovirology Association. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acetazolamide for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis. Paucity of initial cerebrospinal fluid inflammation in cryptococcal meningitis is associated with subsequent immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Clinical and mycological predictors of cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Cryptococcal lymphadenitis and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: current considerations. Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the United States: 1992 to 1994 and 1996 to 1998. Cryptococcosis in Australasia and the treatment of cryptococcal and other fungal infections with liposomal amphotericin B. Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective, multicenter, randomized study. Maternal use of fluconazole and risk of congenital malformations: a Danish population-based cohort study. Prospective assessment of pregnancy outcomes after first-trimester exposure to fluconazole. Infection is endemic to the central and south-central United States and is especially common in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. Asymptomatic dissemination of infection beyond the lungs is common, and cellular immunity is critical in controlling infection. When cellular immunity wanes, reactivation of a silent focus of infection that was acquired years earlier can occur, and it is the presumed mechanism for disease occurrence in nonendemic areas. Diagnosis Detection of Histoplasma antigen in blood or urine is a sensitive method for rapid diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis and acute pulmonary histoplasmosis8 but is insensitive for chronic forms of pulmonary infection. Histopathological examination of biopsy material from involved tissues demonstrates the characteristic 2 to 4 µm budding yeast and can provide a rapid diagnosis. These include creating dust when working with surface soil; cleaning chicken coops that are contaminated with droppings; disturbing areas contaminated with bird or bat droppings; cleaning, remodeling, or demolishing old buildings; and exploring caves. In patients with less severe disseminated histoplasmosis, oral itraconazole, 200 mg 3 times daily for 3 days followed by 200 mg twice daily, is appropriate initial therapy (All). Because absorption of itraconazole can be erratic, a random serum itraconazole level should be obtained after 2 weeks of therapy if there is concern about adherence or if medications with potentially adverse interactions are added to the drug regimen. Fluconazole is less effective than itraconazole for this purpose but has some efficacy at 400 mg daily. No relapses were evident in 32 subjects who were followed for a median of 24 months. At delivery, infants born to women treated with amphotericin B should be evaluated for renal dysfunction and hypokalemia. Congenital malformations similar to those observed in animals, including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, have been reported in infants born to mothers who received fluconazole at doses of 400 mg/day or more through or beyond the first trimester of pregnancy. Random serum concentrations (itraconazole + hydroxyitraconazole) should be >1 µg/mL. Disseminated histoplasmosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment, and review of the literature. Prospective study of histoplasmosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: incidence, risk factors, and pathophysiology. Histoplasmosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected people in Europe: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of 18 cases and literature review. Disseminated histoplasmosis: a comparative study between patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Itraconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Itraconazole treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients at a large Midwestern university transplant center. Transplant infectious disease: an official journal of the Transplantation Society. A 43-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fever of undetermined origin. Treatment of histoplasmosis with fluconazole in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Clinical Trials Group and Mycoses Study Group. Increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis following highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation. Safety of discontinuation of maintenance therapy for disseminated histoplasmosis after immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to itraconazole: a prospective cohort study. These have presumably been the result of reactivation of a previously acquired infection. This diagnosis can be difficult to distinguish from a bacterial community-acquired pneumonia; patients present with symptoms that include cough, fever, and pleuritic chest pain. The syndromes other than focal pneumonia usually occur in more immunosuppressed patients. Diffuse pulmonary disease presents with fever and dyspnea and can be difficult to clinically distinguish from Pneumocystis pneumonia. Routine bacterial cultures from pulmonary secretions frequently reveal Coccidioides after an incubation time of less than one week. Blood cultures are positive in a minority of patients, usually those with diffuse pulmonary disease. Unlike other endemic mycoses, Coccidioides grows relatively rapidly at 37°C on routine bacterial media, especially blood agar. Growth of a non-pigmented mould may be observed in as few as 3 days and can be confirmed as Coccidioides by gene probe.
Lamotrigine can be 9 effective in controlling typical absence seizures but not as effective in suppressing myoclonic seizures order extra super avana 260 mg line erectile dysfunction meds online. Levetiracetam also has a broad spectrum of action against different seizure types and its safety profile would appear to be relatively impressive order extra super avana 260mg without prescription erectile dysfunction otc meds, with hostility/aggression as the only significant and possibly drug-limiting side effects buy genuine extra super avana online erectile dysfunction inventory of treatment satisfaction edits. Vigabatrin is also useful for focal seizures purchase discount extra super avana online young and have erectile dysfunction, with or without secondary generalisation, and appears to be particularly effective in children who have an underlying structural lesion such as focal cortical dysplasia or even low-grade tumours. Rarely, however, behavioural effects may occur, which manifest as either agitation or a change in muscle tone and an increased appetite; these effects are transient and resolve once the dose is reduced or the drug withdrawn. However, the peripheral visual field constriction reported to occur in up to 40% of adult 21 patients treated with vigabatrin is clearly of concern and, consequently, this drug is now only rarely (possibly never) prescribed to adults or older children for focal seizures. At the current time, visual field defects have been reported in children but it is not known whether children are likely to be at a higher or lower risk of developing a visual field defect and also whether any visual field constriction is more or less likely to be reversible than in adults. The reported incidence is 2025% and has been derived from older children treated with this drug for focal seizures but this figure may be higher or lower because it is often very difficult to accurately obtain formal visual field assessment (perimetry) in children with a cognitive age of <9 years. The drug should only be prescribed in children after careful consideration of the risk:benefit ratio. Efficacy and safety data on the use of gabapentin in children are limited, although it does appear 23-25 to be effective in focal seizures. In adults the drug is effective in focal seizures with and without 26,27 evolution to bilaterally convulsive seizures ; there is little information on generalised tonic- clonic seizures, although it would appear to have no effect (beneficial or detrimental) in typical 28 absences. Adverse events appear to be both mild and infrequent with gabapentin, and there are no known drug interactions. Unfortunately, it often has to be administered three times a day (which has implications for some school children), and as yet there is only a capsule formulation that restricts its use in children. Topiramate may also be effective as 34 monotherapy in both focal and primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures and also in treating Dravet syndrome. The drug does appear to be associated with a number of acute and predominantly dose-related side effects, particularly on the central nervous system. These include dizziness, drowsiness, irritability, ‘fatigue’, word-finding difficulties/mild cognitive impairment and, rarely, acute depressive and psychotic illness. Paraesthesiae, renal calculi and glaucoma have also been reported but predominantly in adults; theoretically there is an increased incidence of renal calculi if children are receiving a combination of either topiramate and zonisamide or topiramate with the ketogenic diet over a long period (in excess of 12 or 18 months). Insomnia, anorexia and weight 34 loss are additional reported side effects with topiramate. A number of anecdotal reports have suggested 37,38 that the drug may precipitate non-convulsive status epilepticus. Its spectrum of action is almost identical to carbamazepine, but by not being metabolised to the 11-epoxide metabolite it is associated with fewer adverse side effects than carbamazepine (i. However, hyponatraemia is reported to occur more frequently with oxcarbazepine – although rarely with any significant clinical effects. The drug is available as a standard (not slow or sustained) release tablet and liquid suspension. Finally, there is some evidence that oxcarbazepine will not be complicated by an idiosyncratic rash, even if the child has previously developed a rash with carbamazepine. Like carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine may exacerbate the absence and myoclonic seizures that occur in the generalised 39 epilepsies. There is a clear dose-response relationship with lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, 39 levetiracetam and probably pregabalin, tiagabine and zonisamide but not with vigabatrin , and none appear to be associated with either significant tolerance or tachyphylaxis. Finally, there is as yet no established plasma ‘therapeutic range’ for these new drugs; and as there is no correlation between plasma levels of vigabatrin and its clinical efficacy (due to its pharmacokinetic properties), such measurements are not helpful as a guide to dosage. Whether a random level can be usefully used to ascertain compliance remains to be determined – although this is probably useful where major non-compliance is possible. Unfortunately, a large number of patients developed aplastic anaemia, some with a fatal outcome. This re-emergence of felbamate has not been reported to be accompanied by a corresponding increase in additional cases of aplastic anaemia or hepatitis. Its mechanism of action, and therefore its reported adverse side effects, appears to be similar, but less severe, to that of topiramate. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 139 participants aged 430 years showed significant benefit in most seizure types, particularly atonic (‘drop’) and absence 46 seizures. Many other drugs have been used in paediatric epilepsy, usually in an attempt to control multiple and refractory seizure types. Acetazolamide, a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is considered by many to be a useful add-on drug (usually in combination with 47 carbamazepine) in treating focal seizures. Pyridoxine (vitamin B ) is clearly the treatment of6 48 choice in the rare inherited disorder of pyridoxine-dependent seizures , but it has also been 49 used in West syndrome (infantile spasms). If there has been no obvious or sustained response to pyridoxine, and there remains a high suspicion of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, the child should then receive a three- or four-week course of pyridoxal phosphate. Biotin should also be used in infants and young children with refractory seizures pending the result of a serum biotinidase level. Folinic acid should also be used for any infant with neonatal-onset seizures that have been resistant to both conventional antiepileptic medication and pyridoxine and where no cause has been found for the epilepsy. The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is a historical treatment that has gained more 50 credibility as an effective management of children with drug resistant epilepsy. A randomised controlled trial has demonstrated definitive efficacy over no change in treatment. More relaxed forms of the diet have raised the possibility of it being available to use over a wide age range. Intravenous immunoglobulins have been used with varying (usually very limited), success in ,52,53 intractable epilepsies including children with both the West and Lennox-Gastaut 54,55 syndromes. There are marked variations in the frequency of courses, duration of treatment and doses of this particular therapy and there is as yet no established or universally accepted mechanism of action. Drug choice in childhood epilepsy should, wherever possible, be evidence based as in older individuals. However, there are few randomised controlled trials on which to base drug choice within the epilepsy syndromes. This in part reflects the logistical and ethical difficulties as well as the expense in conducting paediatric trials. Nevertheless, the principal should still be to try and base treatment strategies on robust evidence. They state that focal epilepsies in children older than four years of age have a similar clinical expression to focal epilepsies in adolescents and adults. In refractory focal epilepsies, the results of efficacy trials performed in adults could to some extent be extrapolated to children, provided the appropriate dose and safety data are established. For syndromes limited to childhood, sufficient experience needs to be gained in this 56 population before a new medicinal product may be registered for these indications in children ; predictably such experience is likely to be largely anecdotal unless data can be obtained from well-conducted national or international randomised controlled trials. Many studies are conducted on the basis of seizure type rather than syndrome, are limited in duration and reveal little in the way of long-term effects. Further, a recent randomised double-blind trial in the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy comparing ethosuxuimide, sodium valproate and lamotrigine showed superior efficacy of sodium valproate and 59 ethosuximide over lamotrigine, but some neuropsychological advantage to ethosuximide. There has been increasing concern about the effect of sodium valproate on the unborn child of mothers taking the medication – both an increased risk of malformations, as well as cognitive delay in later childhood. For this reason the medication is not recommended as first line in girls of child-bearing age, and when considered, the risks of taking the medication need to be weighed against the risk of the epilepsy itself in each individual. Epilepsies associated with focal seizures are slightly less common in children in contrast to adults and for these individuals carbamazepine is the usual preferred treatment. Vigabatrin is particularly effective in 12 treating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis but appears to be slightly less effective 61,62 than tetracosactide or prednisolone in treating spasms due to other aetiologies. However there are currently differences of opinion regarding the treatment of infantile spasms, in part reflecting clinicians’ concerns over drug safety and in part availability of medication. Which is used will depend on family and physician choice, weighing up the risk:benefit of the treatment involved. Although use of vigabatrin in adults and older children has been associated with 21 visual field constriction, this appears to be related to dose and duration of treatment and does not necessarily prevent or reduce the use of this drug in treating infantile spasms when weighed up against the risk of short-term high-dose steroids. In Dravet syndrome, previously called severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, medications of choice are sodium valproate, clobazam and topiramate. Furthermore a well-constructed randomised crossover study demonstrated stiripentol, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, to be 63 significantly more effective than placebo when added to sodium valproate and clobazam ; however, this drug may be associated with significant somnolence as well as loss of appetite. Several studies have been conducted evaluating treatments against placebo in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome as add-on therapy. Overall the authors concluded that no study to date had shown any one drug to be effective over and above another but lamotrigine, rufinamide, clobazam, topiramate and felbamate may be helpful as add-on 66 therapy. Therefore until further research has been undertaken clinicians will need to continue to consider each patient individually, taking into account the potential benefit of each therapy weighed against the risk of adverse effects. These must be effective (preferably with a broad spectrum of action against a wide range of seizure types), safe and be available in child-friendly formulation. In this regard, it is common for a child to be falsely described as being refractory to treatment because they have been prescribed the wrong drug for their epilepsy syndrome. The classic example is the use of carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine for juvenile-onset absence or juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, when it is known to exacerbate both the myoclonic and absence seizures which characterise these syndromes. Consequently the prescribing mantra must be ‘if I add, what can I take away’ to avoid dangerous polypharmacy. In individual cases of torsades de pointes there are often multiple risk factors present. The 8,9,10,11 main risk factors which should be considered are: Potentially Modifiable A list of medicines Electrolyte Disturbances (in particular hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and more known to prolong the rarely hypocalcaemia). It is recommended that you check the lists for drugs commonly used in your area of practice to familiarise yourself with the risks.
Patients with borderline personality disorder who have experienced relief of acute symptoms with low-dose neuroleptics may not tolerate the side effects of the drug with longer-term treatment buy cheapest extra super avana erectile dysfunction doctors in tulsa. The risk of tardive dyskinesia must be considered in any decision to continue neuroleptic medication over the long term generic 260 mg extra super avana with mastercard erectile dysfunction medication with high blood pressure. Thioridazine has been associated with cardiac rhythm disturbances related to widening of the Q-T interval and should be avoided order cheap extra super avana line erectile dysfunction causes treatment. In the case of clozapine order generic extra super avana from india erectile dysfunction jacksonville fl, the risk of agranulocytosis is es- pecially problematic. While the newer atypical neuroleptics promise a more favorable side effect profile, evidence of efficacy in borderline personality disorder is still awaited. Neuroleptics should be given in the context of a supportive doctor-patient relationship in which side effects and nonadherence are addressed frequently. Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 65 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. With the exception of one study that used a depot neuroleptic (flupentixol, which is not available in the United States), all medications were given orally and daily. Acute treatment studies are a good model for acute clinical care and typically range from 5 to 12 weeks in duration. There is insuf- ficient evidence to make a strong recommendation concerning continuation and maintenance therapies. At present, this is best left to the clinician’s judgment after carefully weighing the risks and benefits for the individual patient. Although studies that used a naturalistic design have had inconsistent findings, patients with major depression and a comorbid personality disorder were generally less responsive to somatic treatments than patients with major depression alone. In one naturalistic follow-up study (based on chart review), there was no significant dif- ference in recovery rates for 10 patients with major depressive disorder and a personality dis- order (40% recovery) compared with 41 patients with major depressive disorder alone (65. In another study, involving 1,471 depressed inpatients, depressed patients with a personality disorder were 50% less likely to be recovered at hospital discharge than de- pressed patients without a personality disorder (193). Several uncontrolled studies found that outcome was dependent on the time of assessment. Conversely, in another uncontrolled study of inpatients with major depression (195), compared with depressed patients without a personality disorder, those with a personality disorder had a poorer outcome in terms of depression and social functioning immediately follow- ing treatment. However, after 6 and 12 weeks of follow-up, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of depression and social functioning. The number of rehospitalizations did not differ between groups at the 6-month and 12-month follow-up evaluations. Improvements were noted in passive-aggressive and borderline personality traits that did not reach statistical significance. These symptoms should ideally be confirmed by out- side observers, as they provide an objective way to assess treatment response. Knowledge of the patient’s personality functioning before the onset of major depression is critical to knowing when the “baseline” has been achieved. Notable progress has been made in our understanding of borderline personality disorder and its treatment. However, there are many remaining questions regarding treatments with demonstrated efficacy, including how to optimally use them to achieve the best health outcomes for patients with borderline personality disorder. In addition, many therapeutic modalities have received little empirical investigation for borderline personality disorder and require further study. The efficacy of various treatments also needs to be studied in populations such as adolescents, the elderly, forensic populations, and patients in long-term institutional settings. The following is a sample of the types of research questions that require further study. For example, further controlled treatment studies of psychodynamic psychothera- py, dialectical behavior therapy, and other forms of cognitive behavior therapy are needed, partic- ularly in outpatient settings. In addition, psychotherapeutic interventions that have received less investigation, such as group therapy, couples therapy, and family interventions, require study. The following are some specific questions that need to be addressed by future research: • What is the relative efficacy of different psychotherapeutic approaches? Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 67 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Further controlled treatment studies of medications—in particular, those that have received relatively little investigation (for example, atypical neuroleptics)—are need- ed. Studies of continuation and maintenance treatment as well as treatment discontinuation are especially needed, as are systematic studies of treatment sequences and algorithms. The fol- lowing are some specific questions that need to be addressed by future research: • What is the relative efficacy of different pharmacological approaches for the behavioral dimensions of borderline personality disorder? Recommendations may not be applicable to all patients or take individual needs into account. Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 69 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Patient exhibits impulsive aggression, self-mutilation, or self-damaging binge behavior (e. Patient exhibits suspiciousness, referential thinking, paranoid ideation, illusions, derealization, depersonalization, or hallucination-like symptoms Initial Treatment: Low-Dose Neuroleptic (e. The first step in the algorithm is gener- ally supported by the best empirical evidence. The empirical research studies on which these recommendations are based may be “first trials” involving previously untreated patients and may not take into account previous patient nonresponse to one, two, or even three levels of the algorithm (i. Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 71 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. A study of an intervention in which subjects are prospectively followed over time; there are treatment and control groups; subjects are randomly as- signed to the two groups; both the subjects and the investigators are blind to the assign- ments. A prospective study in which an intervention is made and the results of that intervention are tracked longitudinally; study does not meet standards for a randomized clinical trial. A study in which subjects are prospectively followed over time without any specific intervention. A study in which a group of patients and a group of control subjects are identified in the present and information about them is pursued retrospectively or backward in time. A qualitative review and discussion of previously published literature without a quantitative synthesis of the data. American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults. Bateman A, Fonagy P: Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Bateman A, Fonagy P: Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization: an 18-month follow-up. Stevenson J, Meares R: An outcome study of psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Meares R, Stevenson J, Comerford A: Psychotherapy with borderline patients, I: a compar- ison between treated and untreated cohorts. Meares R: Metaphor of Play: Disruption and Restoration in the Borderline Experience. Seeman M, Edwardes-Evans B: Marital therapy with borderline patients: is it beneficial? Markovitz P: Pharmacotherapy of impulsivity, aggression, and related disorders, in Impul- sivity and Aggression. Compr Psychiatry 1973; 14:311–317 [B] Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 75 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Links P, Steiner M, Boiago I, Irwin D: Lithium therapy for borderline patients: preliminary findings. De la Fuente J, Lotstra F: A trial of carbamazepine in borderline personality disorder. Benedetti F, Sforzini L, Colombo C, Maffei C, Smeraldi E: Low-dose clozapine in acute and continuation treatment of severe borderline personality disorder. Serban G, Siegel S: Response of borderline and schizotypal patients to small doses of thiothixene and haloperidol. Goldberg S, Schulz C, Schulz P, Resnick R, Hamer R, Friedel R: Borderline and schizotypal personality disorder treated with low-dose thiothixene vs placebo. Kutcher S, Papatheodorou G, Reiter S, Gardner D: The successful pharmacological treatment of adolescents and young adults with borderline personality disorder: a prelimi- nary open trial of flupenthixol. Teicher M, Glod C, Aaronson S, Gunter P, Schatzberg A, Cole J: Open assessment of the safety and efficacy of thioridazine in the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (Revision). American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Bipolar Disorder (Revision). American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Eating Disorders (Revision). American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Substance Use Disorders: Alcohol, Cocaine, Opioids. American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Panic Disorder. Losel F: Management of psychopaths, in Psychopathy: Theory, Research and Implications for Society. Paris J, Zweig-Frank H: Dissociation in patients with borderline personality disorder (letter). Fossati A, Madeddu F, Maffei C: Borderline personality disorder and childhood sexual abuse: a meta-analytic study. J Personal Disord 1999; 13:268–280 [E] Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 77 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Neisser U, Fivush R (eds): The Remembering Self: Construction and Accuracy in the Self- Narrative. Spiegel D, Maldonado J: Dissociative disorders, in The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry, 3rd ed.
Mesalamine must be coated or placed in special capsules to ensure drug delivery to the intestine or colon discount extra super avana 260mg mastercard erectile dysfunction toys. The difference in coating affects where the medication is released in the intestine or colon and how frequently the medication needs to be taken (once cheap extra super avana online amex drinking causes erectile dysfunction, twice purchase extra super avana toronto erectile dysfunction causes and symptoms, or three times daily) order 260mg extra super avana visa crestor causes erectile dysfunction. Rectal administration permits delivery of high dose therapy (targeted exactly where it is needed) and avoids systemic (body wide) exposure. In many cases, rectal therapies are used in conjunction with oral therapies for additional symptom improvement: Suppositories (Canasa®) deliver mesalamine directly to the rectum. A high proportion of patients with proctitis (inflammation in the rectum) will respond to mesalamine suppositories. These are usually given in single or twice- daily doses and can provide substantial relief from the urgency and frequency of bowel movements. A combination of rectal and oral therapies may be more effective than pills alone. Up to 80 percent of patients with left-sided colon inflammation benefit from using this therapy once a day. Side Effects and Special Considerations Overall, aminosalicylates are well tolerated and safe. While few medications have been thoroughly evaluated in pregnancy, these medications are considered generally safe to use during pregnancy. Specific issues with individual agents include: Sulfasalazine: A decrease in sperm production and function in men can occur while taking sulfasalazine. Rare side effects are hair loss, pancreatitis, or inflammation of the tissue surrounding the heart (pericarditis). Drug Interactions People taking several different medicines, whether prescription or over-the-counter, should always be on the lookout for interactions between drugs. Drug interactions may decrease a medication’s effectiveness, intensify the action of a drug, or cause unexpected side effects. Be sure to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking (even over-the-counter medications or complementary therapies) and any medical condition you may have. Even during times of remission, it is important to continue taking your medications as prescribed to prevent asymptomatic inflammation and future flares. Disclaimer: The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation provides information for educational purposes only. We encourage you to review this educational material with your health care professional. The Foundation does not provide medical or other health care opinions or services. The inclusion of another organization’s resources or referral to another organization does not represent an endorsement of a particular individual, group, company or product. HealingHealing 3) Appreciate the clini- cal data regarding relative pharmacological effects of specific medication classes What drugs your patient takes mayWhat drugs your patient takes may on the phases of wound influence this process. Our journal has been approved as a sponsor of Contin- uing Medical Education by the Council on Podiatric Medical Education. You may submit the answer sheet, along with the other information requested, via mail, fax, or phone. If you correctly answer seventy (70%) of the questions correctly, you will receive a certificate attesting to your earned cred- its. We will endeavor to publish high quality manuscripts by noted authors and researchers. If you have any questions or comments about this program, you can write or call us at: Podiatry Management, P. Following this article, an answer sheet and full set of instructions are provided (p. The purpose of this review is to Wound Healing Process offer the podiatric physician infor- Overview Reflection of these preva- mation regarding wound pharmacol- Once a wound occurs, a multi- lence statistics collectively al- ogy: “drug and physiology” effects tude of biological and chemical pro- lows for an inference and summa- within the context of the wound cesses take place. In order to accom- ing response is aimed at restoring tional population exists as it per- plish this endeavor, two concepts the tissue to its original integrity. An overview of The complex healing process of an tion medications and patients with basic wound healing physiology will acute dermal wound can be divided lower extremity wounds. Given be first offered because achieving into three non-linear, overlapping that many healthcare providers this understanding is essential when phases of inflammatory reaction, overlook or are unaware of specific discussing the effects of medications proliferation, and remodeling. Sec- phase lasts a specific length of time interactions, it is important that a ondly, building upon this founda- and has characteristic cellular ele- clinician be knowledgeable of the tion of wound healing physiology, ments. Instantly, upon injury, growth factors, their sources, and ing may be accelerated or modified. It appears that the balance of phase occurs in the first one to four Within minutes neutrophils in- these cytokines, rather than their days of injury. Essentially, the in- vade the wound, followed by mere presence or absence, plays a de- flammation phase cleans the monocytes and lymphocytes releas- cisive role in regulating the initiation, wound of dead cellular material and ing large numbers of cytokines, progression, and resolution of bacterial infection and sets up which promote the migration, pro- wounds. Individual cytokines can in- chemical gradients in the wound liferation, and survival of various fluence wound repair in different space. The ef- uration involves remodeling of the fect of a particular medica- angiogenesis, cell migration, and extracellular matrix and continuing tion on the wound healing cell proliferation. Gradual reduction in vascu- dosage, and route of administration Macrophage-derived cytokines are lature and cellular structure ensues. Secondly, all wounds that non-steroidal Macrophages continue to remain are contaminated or colonized with the source of cytokines for fibropla- anti-inflammatory bacteria and do not necessarily sia and angiogenesis. Lastly, antimicro- During fibroplasia, new dermal and angiogenesis in bial selection should be guided by matrix and granulation tissue form. As fibroplasia takes place, the pro- the early phases When the podiatric physician elects cess of angiogenesis is initiated by of wound healing. Re-ep- the potential for side-effects should ithelialization begins during this be monitored. In order to avoid the phase to form a new layer of skin potential for the incidence of resis- over the wound. Fibroblasts are in- ty, including disappearance of typi- tant organisms the prolonged use of volved in wound contraction, fi- cal myofibroblasts. This phase lasts in a highly the benefit of topical antibiotic The final phase of wound heal- active state for around one year, but ointments is due to their vehicles. Re-epithelialization has been shown replacement of granulation tissue The wound gains only about 20% to be enhanced by the use of topical by connective tissue. This regenera- of its final strength in the first three ointments and creams containing tion phase involves the growth of weeks. This process re- tissue is extremely delicate and super- bered that both tetracycline and quires locally acting cytokines. The extracel- fect by either assisting or interfer- duce the number of normal flora lular matrix is formed in a loose ing with the specific phases of Continued on page 200 www. The effect of aspirin on cy- literature regarding irrigating acute clooxygenase lasts about 8-12 days, and pathogenic contami- traumatic wounds and concluded about the lifespan of a platelet. They bind septics are toxic to some bacteria, safe and not detrimental to wound to cytoplasmic receptors and spores, fungi, and viruses, as well as healing. Solutions with bac- surrounds the use of other antisep- corticosteroids to affect almost tericidal and detergent properties tic agents because of the lack of suf- every phase of wound healing. An ideal be accepted as clinically based evi- pression is related to the corticos- antiseptic has the following proper- dence. The most promi- ties: a broad spectrum of activity, a available, the indiscriminate use of nent effects are noticed when corti- low potential for resistance, rapid acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and costeroids are administered during activity, nonirritant or non-sensi- sodium hypochlorite should be the early inflammatory phase. Heparin, along with its cofactor tion resulting in less collagen, less tial cellular toxicity. Given the lack of increase in their rate of differentia- fection rates are not convincing clinical base data, it has been spec- tion results in a thinned epidermis. It inhibits plasia and collagen remodeling dur- have yielded conflicting outcomes, platelet aggregation by irreversibly ing subsequent days of wound heal- antiseptic irrigation should not be acetylating platelet enzymes that ing. These authors recom- wound healing due to im- in open wounds occurs regardless of mend short-term diclofenac applica- paired collagen synthesis. Also, the blood sup- there is evidence that non-steroidal the initial phases of wound healing, ply to the wound may be compro- anti-inflammatory drugs delay both but cells do move into the healing mised by colchicine vasoconstric- epithelialization and angiogenesis wound and by day 30, there is no tive effects. There exist tions of arachidonic acid, thus hav- case studies found in the literature deciding to employ the ing more of an anti-inflammatory regarding the use of topical pheny- effect as opposed to an anti-platelet practice of off-label toin to treat wounds. The effects of ibuprofen and main action on wound healing is its diclofenac on wound healing were compounding modification of collagen remodeling examined by Dvidedi, et al. Also, collagen synthesis is not drugs impede tissue repair by virtue significantly affected by phenytoin, of retarding inflammation. In states of nutritional de- of medications in wound healing is nective tissue, reflecting the known ficiency caused by starvation, illness essential. The purpose of this review anti-proliferative effect of diclofenac and fad diets, ascorbic acid deficien- Continued on page 202 www. Wound healing for the pharmacology within the context of white petrolatum vs bacitracin oint- dermatologic surgeon. The effect of antimicrobial agents The effect of epicutaneous glucocorticoids healing physiology, potential drug on leukocyte chemotaxis. J Invest Der- on human monocytes and neutrophil mi- and wound environment physiolo- matol 1978; 70 (1): 51-55. New York: Marcel and be mindful that a patient’s med- Appleton & Lange, 1994: 171. Ef- 1 National Center for Health Statis- Wound colonization and infection: the fect of ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium tics Health, United States, 2006 with role of topical antimicrobials. Indian J Chartbook on Trends in Health of Amer- 2001; 10 (9): 563-578 Exp Biol 1997; 35 (11): 1243-1245.
They include calculating number of tablets or capsules required purchase 260 mg extra super avana overnight delivery erectile dysfunction workup, divided doses purchase extra super avana 260 mg otc most popular erectile dysfunction pills, simple drug dosages and dosages based on patient parameters generic extra super avana 260mg on line statistics on erectile dysfunction, e order extra super avana no prescription impotence natural treatment clary sage. It is important that you are able to do these calculations confidently, as mistakes may result in the patient receiving the wrong dose which may lead to serious consequences for the patient. After completing this chapter, should you not only be able to do the calculations, but also be able to decide whether your answer is reasonable or not. However, there may be instances when the strength of the tablets or capsules available do not match the dose prescribed. The answer involves finding how many 25s there are in 75 or in other words 75 divided by 25: 75 3 = =3tablets 25 1 Dosages based on patient parameters 83 In most cases, it is a simple sum you can do in your head, but even so, it is a drug calculation – so care must always be taken. A patient is prescribed 2g of flucloxacillin to be given orally but it is available in 500mg capsules. Once again it is a simple calculation but it is slightly more complicated than our earlier example as the dose prescribed and the available medication are in different units. We could either convert the 500 mg into grams, or we could convert the 2 g into milligrams. In this case it is preferable to convert the grams to milligrams as this avoids decimal points. Remember it is best not to work with decimal points – a decimal point in the wrong place can mean a 10-fold or even a 100-fold error. To convert grams to milligrams, multiply by 1,000: 2g = (2 × 1,000)mg = 2,000mg The calculation is now similar to our earlier example. The answer involves finding how many 500s are in 2,000 or in other words 2,000 divided by 500: 2,000 4 = =4capsules 500 1 Once again, it is a simple sum you can do in your head, but it is a drug calculation, so care must always be taken. A formula can be derived: amount prescribed number required = amount inn each tablet or capsule For dosage calculations involving liquids and injections, see the section ‘Calculating drug dosages’ on page 87. This particularly applies to cytotoxics and other drugs that require an accurate individual dose. This means that for every kilogram (kg) of a patient’s weight, you will need 3mg of drug. For example: the dose required is 500mg/m2 and the patient’s body surface area is 1. For every square metre (m2) of a patient’s surface area, you will need 500mg of drug. This can be summarized as: total dose required = dose per m2 × body surface area When using this method of calculation, the actual body weight should be used. However, in the case of obese children, the child may receive an artificially high dose. The reason for this is that fat tissue plays virtually no part in metabolism, and the dose must be estimated on lean or ideal body weight. As a rule of thumb, doses should be reduced by approximately 25% for obese children. Question 8 Dose = 5mcg/kg/min, patient’s weight = 65kg What is the dose in mcg/min? A dose can be described as a single dose, a daily dose, a daily divided dose, a weekly dose or a total dose, etc. If using a 125mg/5mL suspension, it would be appropriate to give this in four divided doses: 512 mg = 20. The easiest way is by proportion: what you do to one side of an equation, do the same to the other side. Also, when what you’ve got and what you want are in different units, you need to convert everything to the same units. When converting to the same units, it is best to convert to whole numbers to avoid decimal points, as fewer mistakes are then made. We have: 50 micrograms in 1 mL So: 100 micrograms in 2 mL (by doubling) It follows: 150 micrograms in 3 mL (1mL + 2mL) From this: 125 micrograms would be within the range 2–3mL. From the above, a formula can be derived to calculate drug dosages: amount you want × volume it’s in amount you’ve got This formula should be familiar as this is the one universally taught for calculating doses. Remember care must be taken when using any formula – ensure that numbers are entered and calculated correctly. From the above example: amount you want = 125 micrograms amount you’ve got = 50 micrograms volume it’s in = 1mL Substitute the numbers in the formula: 125 × 1 = 2. The following case report illustrates the importance of ensuring that your calculations are right. The doctor is reported to have worked out the dose on a piece of paper and then checked it on a calculator but the decimal point was inserted in the wrong place and 15 instead of 0. The dose was then prepared and handed to the senior registrar who administered it without double-checking the calculation and, despite treatment with naloxone, the baby died 55 minutes later. The following two cases illustrate the importance of checking numbers before administration. Although it is still not known whether this dose was chosen deliberately or prescribed in error, there is evidence to support the use of a 2g oral regimen. What concerned the reporting hospital was that the nurse administered 10 × 200mg tablets to the patient without any reference or confirmation that this was indeed what was intended. This use of amiodarone is at present outside the product licence and would not have been described in any of the literature available on the ward. The patient subsequently died, but at the time of writing no causal effect from this high dose of amiodarone had been established. The prescribed dose was misread and two nurses checking each other gave five pre-filled syringes, i. So much heparin was required that another patient’s supply had to be used as well and the error came to light when the ward made a request to pharmacy for 25,000 unit doses of dalteparin. When the error was discovered the patient’s coagulation status was checked immediately and she fortunately came to no harm. Comment It seems inconceivable that such high numbers of dose units could be administered to patients without the nurses involved at least querying that something might be wrong. Question 15 If Oramorph® concentrate 100 mg/5 ml is used to give a dose of 60mg for breakthrough pain, what volume is required? Question 17 You need to give ranitidine liquid at a dose of 2 mg/kg to a 9-year-old child weighing 23kg. Question 18 You need to give a dose of trimethoprim suspension to a child weighing 18. Question 19 Ciclosporin (cyclosporin) has been prescribed to treat a patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis. Ciclosporin (cyclosporine) is available in 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg capsules. Question 20 You need to give aciclovir (acyclovir) as an infusion at a dose of 5 mg/kg every 8 hours. Question 21 A 50 kg woman is prescribed aminophylline as an infusion at a dose of 0. Question 22 You need to prepare an infusion of co-trimoxazole at a dose of 120mg/kg/day in four divided doses for a patient weighing 68kg. Displacement values or volumes 91 iii) How many ampoules do you need for 24 hours? If you take ordinary salt and dissolve it in some water, the resultant solution will have a greater volume than before. For example, to make up 100mL of amoxicillin (amoxycillin) suspension, only 68 mL of water needs to be added. However it can be very important when you want to give a dose that is less than the total contents of the vial – a frequent occurrence in paediatrics and neonatology. The volume of the final solution must be considered when calculating the amount to withdraw from the vial. The total volume may be increased significantly and, if this is not taken into account, significant errors in dosage may occur, especially when small doses are involved as with neonates. Thus if the displacement volume is not taken into account, then the amount drawn up is 164mg and not 180mg as required. Displacement values will depend on the medicine, the manufacturer and its strength. Information on a medicine’s displacement value is usually stated in the relevant drug information sheets, in paediatric dosage books, or can be obtained from your Pharmacy Department. Calculating doses using displacement volumes: volume to be added = diluent volume – displacement volume For example, for benzylpenicillin: Dose required = 450mg Displacement volume = 0. You have a 1 g vial that needs to be reconstituted to 10 mL with Water for Injections. You have a 1 g vial that needs to be reconstituted to 4 mL with Water for Injections. You have a 250mg vial that needs to be reconstituted to 5mL with Water for Injections. What are moles and millimoles 95 • A one molar (1 M) solution has one mole of the substance dissolved in each litre of solution (equivalent to 1mmol per mL). These are measurements carried out by chemical pathology and the units used are usually millimoles or micromoles. The millimole unit is also encountered with infusions when electrolytes have been added. This section will explain what moles and millimoles are, and how to do calculations involving millimoles. However, the concept of moles and millimoles is difficult to explain and to understand; you need to be familiar with basic chemistry. These are too small to be counted individually, so the mole is the unit used by chemists to make counting and measuring a lot easier. Just as the word ‘dozen’ represents the number 12, the mole also represents a number – 6 × 1023.