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Periorbital abscesses generally re- Grey Parrot resulted in hyperplastic parakeratotic epithelial proliferations epitol 100 mg with amex. They are most often seen in cockatiels purchase epitol 100 mg with visa, lomas have been described without viral isolation buy cheap epitol 100 mg on line. Surgical debridement of the Any dermatosis (eg, allergic, bacterial, fungal) can abscesses with concomitant systemic antibiotics is potentially affect the periorbital skin and occur in the the only effective treatment. Early dacryocystitis can sometimes be treated Congenital Deformities by expressing the inflammatory debris through the Although rare in birds, congenital eyelid abnormali- lacrimal punctum. More severe cases with firm, ne- ties do occur and are a surgical challenge to correct. Surgical removal is not the point at which normal upper eyelid would be recommended because of the potential for scarring found, has been reported in a raptor. Cryptophthalmos (fusion of the eyelid margins) has Periorbital Swelling of Neoplastic Origin been reported in four cockatiels11 in which dramati- Any primary tumor arising in the periorbital or cally reduced or absent palpebral fissures were de- retrobulbar area can cause swelling with or without 7 scribed without other ocular abnormalities (Color globe displacement. Reconstructive surgery was uniformly unsuc- appears to be a particularly common area for cutane- 13 cessful. Behaviorally, the birds appeared normal be- ous manifestations of lymphoreticular neoplasia, cause some vision was possible through one or both represented clinically by periorbital swelling, globe 61,65 eyes. Exophthalmia or goose, in which feathers grew out of the aberrant posteriorly directed strabismus may be noted. Exophthalmos and globe deviation have been re- Microphthalmia and maldevelopment of ciliary body, ported secondary to optic nerve glioma, orbital round retina and pecten, as well as retinal dysplasias and cell sarcoma,2,26 and some advanced cases of pituitary congenital cataracts have been described in rap- 69 tors. Other less common causes of retrobulbar masses include Myco- Umbrella Cockatoo with choanal atresia, resulting in bacterium spp. This lesion can be resolved with a lateral Hyperplastic Periocular Lesions canthoplasty (see Chapter 41). Proliferative and hyperplastic periorbital lesions are most commonly seen in budgerigars and canaries in response to Knemidokoptes spp. In another study, 41% of ocular samples were sterile and 50% of the isolates were gram-positive cocci. Physical examination indi- fungal organisms was determined in a group of 117 cated the lack of a choanal slit and an abnormally formed in- birds by swabbing the conjunctiva. The pled were clinically asymptomatic and were housed periorbital tissue was moistened with a serous ocular and nasal discharge. The first are those caused by strictly local ducklings, suggesting that neonatal conjunctival factors, such as localized conjunctival infection or flora are derived from intestinal flora (Color 26. The second are those in which con- The isolation of gram-negative bacteria from the eye junctivitis is a manifestation of periorbital or orbital or conjunctiva should be considered abnormal except disease. These are mainly related to sinusitis (see in Anseriformes and Rheiformes, where gram-nega- Chapter 22). The third group are those in which tive bacteria are considered autochthonous flora. Haemophilus-like bacteria have been reported to Almost any organism causing systemic infection can cause conjunctivitis in cockatiels. A careful examination of the bird for upper respiratory disease is mandatory in Chlamydia psittaci is a frequent cause of keratocon- determining the cause of ocular discharge or conjunc- 23 junctivitis in Australian parakeets and of conjunc- tival hyperemia (Color 26. In smoke, chemical fumes and other aerosolized envi- these cases, treatment with topical oxytetracycline is ronmental toxins should always be considered in the effective. Clinical chlamydiosis in Psittaciformes is differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis, with or with- generally associated with conjunctivitis, diarrhea out signs of upper respiratory disease. The conjunctival flora of captive exotic birds conjunctivitis may be the only presenting signs. This nematode can the third eyelid, may be a cause of conjunctival irri- enter the lacrimal duct and may cause transient tation and should be suspected in cases of unilateral epiphora if present in large numbers. Heavy parasite Hawks had grass florets lodged behind the third burdens must be treated with a single topical dose of eyelid. When a bird eats the cockroach, the mature Cockatiels are frequently presented with a conjunc- nematode larvae escape into the crop, move up the tivitis from which no infectious agent can be isolated. Companion birds maintained in indoor envi- discharge, progressing to conjunctival chemosis and ronments are less likely to be infected. Trematode flukes of the genus Philophthalmus have been reported as a cause of conjunctivitis in many The lesions are often associated with upper respira- avian species (Color 26. Iso- birds to show persistent lacrimation, irritation and lating mycoplasma requires specialized techniques, loss of condition. Repeated applications of topical and diagnostic samples should be sent in specific 29 carbamate powder eliminated the flukes. Many cockatiels with conjunctivitis are not systemically positive for Chlamydia spp. Systemic tet- epithelial erosions secondary to trauma or keratitis racycline is often curative but should be combined secondary to lid abnormalities. Fluorescein dye will with symptomatic treatment of the inflamed perior- stain denuded stroma indicating the presence of an bita. In subtle lesions such as Amazon punctate the eyes can be sprayed with tylosin (l:10 dilution in keratitis, an ultraviolet Wood’s lamp can be used to sterile water) or lincomycin and spectinomycin. In some cockatiels, the conjunctivitis is provide a sterile environment and time for corneal associated with partial lid paresis and reduced jaw epithelium to heal (Color 26. Many of these birds have giardiasis from other species, anticollagenases should be used and respond to treatment with metronidazole and in deep ulcers, especially in hotter climates, where vitamin E. A similar condition has been noted in corneal melting may be a cause of rupture of the budgerigars, and again, the etiologic agent has yet to globe. The use of a hydrated collagen shield to provide a Treatment of more severely affected birds, such as medicated corneal bandage has not been reported in those with intraocular lesions, includes topical and birds but may be useful in selected cases. To provide intraocular inflammation can reduce the healing of a suitable surface for reattachment of the epithe- concurrent corneal ulceration; topical non-steroidal lium, devitalized epithelium can be removed with a anti-inflammatories such as indomethacin or flu- dry cotton-tipped applicator or by using a punctate or bruprofen may be more appropriate in these cases. Uvea Mynah Bird Keratitis Corneal erosions may be noted secondary to capture Uveitis in raptors is most commonly seen as a sequel and transport in many imported companion birds. In one latter was reported to be the most common ophthal- study, 96% of birds examined immediately after ship- mologic finding in injured raptors in one survey. One case of regress spontaneously in a few weeks, but some may bilateral intraocular inflammation with concomitant lead to corneal scarring and permanent opacity. Systemic as- changes suggested disseminated intravascular co- pergillosis is found in many chronically affected agulopathy. Hypopyon and hemorrhage, sometimes birds, suggesting an immunosuppressed condition. Active inflamma- punctate appearance has been reported in Central tion may be mild, with increased levels of aqueous American Amazon parrots. Lesions are bilateral, and proteins causing a flare that reduces the clarity of iris the presenting signs are normally blepharospasm detail and pupil margin.
In addition cheap 100mg epitol with amex, the dry cheap 100 mg epitol visa, powdered formula used for neonates should also be stored in the freezer in a sealed container (courtesy of Apalachee River Aviary) buy 100mg epitol with visa. Exceptional food hygiene is vital to prevent the machine to grind and blend vegetables allows for spread of food-borne pathogens or the spoilage of easy removal of uneaten food by simply washing the moist foods within an enclosure. Food Birds should have potable, fresh water provided in a stuffs have been frequently blamed for flock out- clean bowl daily. In reality, formulated drinking water; they oxidize rapidly and provide a foods designed for companion birds are usually of growth media for bacteria and fungus. Water should excellent quality, and bacterial contamination is be collected directly from a tap that is run for 30-45 more likely to occur from improper food handling seconds before filling a container. Automatic watering systems comparison, foods designed for gallinaceous birds reduce labor, ensure that birds have a clean fresh (eg, chick starter, chicken scratch) frequently have supply of water at all times and prevent food or fecal large numbers of gram-negative pathogens and contamination of the water supply. Water should be should not be used in association with companion flushed through the lines daily as part of the mainte- birds. Weekly flushing of water lines with with soft or fresh foods in which spoilage is rapid hypochlorite or iodophores is necessary to keep the (Figure 2. Automatic watering nutritious and are thought to stimulate breeding by systems should be checked daily to ensure that they many aviculturists. Mortality levels could be high of bacterial or fungal pathogens, and they should be if a watering system fails and it is not detected avoided or rinsed thoroughly with dilute hypochlo- immediately. Fruits or vegetables that remain on the floor of in the management of infectious diseases. Realisti- an enclosure can be a source of bacterial and fungal cally, they are probably of minimal value as long as pathogens and should be removed daily, especially in aviary personnel are not entering flight enclosures. The veterinarian must take precautions when going from one premise to another to avoid transmission of pathogens on contaminated foot wear. Having a pair of rubber boots that remain on each premise is the best way to prevent disease transmission. Any equipment that comes in contact with a bird should be disinfected, rinsed and thoroughly dried before it is used again. Air conditioners and ventilation systems may serve as foci for bacterial or fungal growth in an indoor facility. Use of a commercial dish-washer infections were traced to an air conditioner filter that is an excellent way to maintain bowl hygiene in larger facilities. Nest boxes should, at a mini- Food and water bowls should be made of stainless mum, be thoroughly cleaned on an annual basis, and steel, hard plastic or crockery and should be washed nest material should be changed after each clutch if daily. Bowls can be washed in soap and water and chicks were allowed to hatch in the nest. If cleaned as a group, constructed of wood or other porous material should the bowls should be disinfected (with Clorox) before be destroyed if the inhabitants develop a viral or reuse (Table 2. Embryos may die in the shell or can be set up as follows: detergent and hot water, septicemic chicks may occur if an egg becomes moist rinse, immersion for at least 30 minutes in a properly in the nest box, allowing bacterial agents to pass diluted disinfectant solution (Clorox), a second rinse through the shell pores. A commercial dishwasher is a viable alternative to hand-washing techniques as Disinfectants: All aviary facilities should be clean long as organic debris can be adequately removed and sanitary. Mycobacterium Ineffective Ineffective Effective Ineffective Chlamydia – Recommended – – Candida – – Effective Less effective If organic debris present Ineffective Ineffective Less effective Less effective All disinfectants are toxic and should be used in a conservative fashion for the specific purpose of preventing exposure to infectious agents. The least toxic agent that will effectively meet the disinfecting needs should be chosen. In most cases, a 5% dilution of sodium hypochlorite is the safest and most efficacious with the least potential for leaving toxic residues. Materials should always be cleaned before they are disinfected, because few disinfectants are effective in the presence of organic debris. Birds should not come in direct contact with disinfectants, and it is best if they are not exposed to disinfectant fumes as well. Either decreasing the pH or increasing the temperature will increase the efficacy of Clorox. As a general disinfectant, bleach is mixed at a rate of 200 mls/4 liters of water. The constant use of powerful constructing a facility that discourages nesting in or disinfectants in the absence of a disease threat is not around the aviary. For example, in outdoor aviaries, beneficial, and continuous contact with these chemi- concrete slabs are frequently used to provide addi- cals can be detrimental to the birds and aviary per- tional cleanliness under suspended cages; however, sonnel. Chlorine bleach should be used only in well rats almost invariably tunnel and nest under these ventilated areas, and a 5% solution is effective for slabs. Bait boxes should be Insects: Insects and rodents are potential vectors for used as needed and with caution. They also may irritate and with small quantities of ground meat are particularly disturb the breeding birds. Control of roaches, especially in and consume small birds, but will rarely attack larger outdoor facilities in southern coastal climates, is chal- Psittaciformes. Insecticides alone are usu- birds (canaries, finches, budgerigars, lovebirds) out- ally not effective and are potentially dangerous to the doors, the enclosure should be constructed with small birds. Biological control of roaches is preferable to wire or screen to prevent entry of snakes. Insectivorous animals (gecko liz- ards or chickens) can be used to consume the insects. The use of flightless silky chickens is recommended to prevent the chickens from roosting on the aviary enclosures. Evaluating and Treating Flock Problems Ants can transmit some parasites such as the prov- entricular worm Dispharynx. Ants may reduce food consumption by swarming food bowls or may build nests in the nest boxes. Control procedures should Emergency Care include baiting of nests and trails, keeping facilities clean and avoiding foods with high sugar and fat An experienced aviculturist is usually the first indi- content, which attract ants. The incidence of mites vidual involved in providing emergency care to a sick and lice is low in captive psittacine birds but they or injured bird. The client should be well schooled in may be introduced into an aviary by free-ranging providing first aid and recognizing signs of illness birds. This ian should assist the aviculturist in preparing a first mite is nocturnal and hides in crevices in the aviary aid kit, in being prepared to provide post-examina- and nest boxes during the day. These mites are blood tion nursing care and in having the necessary sup- feeders and can kill chicks by exsanguination. For plies to safely and effectively transport a sick bird the control of mites inhabiting nest boxes, five per- (Table 2. The experienced avicultur- cent carbaryl powder has been used successfully ist should know how to administer stabilizing ther- without apparent harm to chicks or adults.