By K. Marlo. Texas Chiropractic College.

Practitioners claim its prin- believed the entire Earth is a huge magnet purchase 0.5mg dutasteride hair loss zoladex, and he cipal beauty is that it has a large sense of caring for advocated use of magnets as healing devices for others in a very practical way buy generic dutasteride 0.5mg hair loss 5 month old. Other proponents of magnetism as therapy were the French Royal Society of Medi- Principles of macrobiotic shiatsu cine in 1777; Franz Anton Mesmer purchase dutasteride mastercard hair loss lexapro, who catalyzed the use of hypnosis and “animal magnetism” in • Health is the natural condition of human beings. Pasteur, who claimed that magnets accelerated the • Health or sickness is not an accident or some- fermentation process; and Dr. Chicago Magnet Company, who thought that using • Sickness arises from how we live because of our magnets on the body and in clothing and shoes own actions and thoughts. Samuel Hahnemann, the father of modern home- • Food is one of the more important factors in opathy, also experimented with and advocated the determining health or sickness. Contemporary theory says magnetic fields can • The strong will naturally help the weak. Each of • Purpose of treatment is to stimulate people to go these types of magnetic fields has the potential to beyond their previous limitations. It has been developed individual cells as well as upon whole living from attempting to understand the underlying rea- organisms. After he disengaged production (melatonin and growth hormone); clear from the rock, Magnes also noticed that he could metabolically produced toxins from the body; elim- marma 81 inate free radicals; and slow down electrical brain master dowsers with magnetically shielded material activity. Whereas negative fields have a tranquiliz- affected their ability to sense weak magnetic fields. Magnetic field therapy is reported to have bene- According to Robert Todd Carroll, author of The ficial effects on such conditions as toothache, peri- Skeptic’s Dictionary (Hoboken, N. Most of the support for these notions is tral nervous system disorders, cancer, injuries, and in the form of testimonials and anecdotes, and can other conditions. Enthusiasts also claim magnets be attributed to “placebo effects and other effects used in beds, clothing, and chair pads and applied to accompanying their use” (Livingston 1998). There is the body affect the body’s ability to combat fatigue almost no scientific evidence supporting magnet and regulate body temperature even in extreme therapy. According to studies, the ble-blind study done at Baylor College of Medicine body’s electromagnetic fields are affected by the that compared the effects of magnets and sham mag- weakest magnetism and harmed if the magnetism is nets on the knee pain of 50 post-polio patients. Some patients may experimental group reported a significantly greater experience pain or symptomatic reactions to certain reduction in pain than the control group. No repli- medications or have more severe reactions to toxins cation of the study has yet been done. Also, magnets Additional information is available by contacting are not recommended for use on the abdomen dur- Bio-Electro-Magnetics Institute, 2490 West Moana ing pregnancy or for prolonged periods. Some people in Japanese cities experienced form is mantram) that carry energy and vibrations symptoms including chronic fatigue and insomnia useful in meditation practices. According to that were eventually related to the fact that iron Ayurvedic medicine, chanting a mantram or and steel girders in large modern buildings mantra has healing benefits, particularly to achieve restricted the flow of the Earth’s magnetic energy. Among the most massage The scientific method of manipulating common types of massage are the following (1) the soft tissues of the body for several different pur- shiatsu, a Japanese style of massage, is performed poses: to restore basic functions of all systems of on the floor, on a mat, rather than on a massage the body as a whole (hence the term holistic), table, (2) acupressure, similar to shiatsu, mainly release tension by giving the body a chance to heal uses thumb pressure to stimulate pressure points, naturally, boost the immune system, release endor- (3) neuromuscular, also known as trigger point phins, increase circulation, improve muscle tone, therapy, uses finger pressure to address painful and rid the body of toxins. In ancient times, people of India used aims to locate and correct cerebral and spinal massage to strengthen and heal the body. The Bible imbalances or blockages that cause sensory, motor, mentions “laying the hand on the body” and or intellectual dysfunction, (6) connective tissue anointing the body with oil as a means of healing. Hippocrates, known as the father of dle layers of connective tissue (called fascia) to medicine, recommended that his patients receive relax, revitalize, and heal the body, (7) manual such treatment for overall health and said that all lymph drainage is a rhythmic pumping form of physicians should learn massage techniques. From massage designed to stimulate the movement of that point forward, hundreds of variations on the lymph fluid through the lymph vessels. It is espe- theme have been created and explored by many cially useful in the treatment of lymphedema, a different cultures. Thai medical history documents side effect of any surgery in which the lymph that Thai massage was introduced to the world by nodes are removed or of irradiation administered Jibaka Kumaru Bacha, an Indian doctor, more than in the area of the lymph nodes, (8) chair massage 2,500 years ago. He incorporated the use of herbs often occurs in public settings, such as corporate and minerals, as well as the spiritual aspect of the offices, where time is of the essence and clothes art. A special chair, rather than a respected profession, despite its unfortunate link to massage table, is used to make the recipient as prostitution and “massage parlors. This is especially useful the basis of all Western forms of massage treat- in cases when massage of certain areas of the body ment, is a full-body massage using a variety of oils is restricted, (10) The Feldenkrais Method is con- to nourish the skin—sesame, almond, coconut, and sidered useful for many types of chronic pain, grape seed, to name a few. Deep Tis- monly used for athletes, dancers, and other per- sue, for example, is often incorporated into formers, the method is said to improve balance, Swedish massage if the client has problem areas coordination, and mobility. Although it can be be performed while the person is sitting or lying meridians 83 on the floor, standing, or sitting in a chair, consists cation to pass themselves off as certified. It is prefer- principle of the universal life force energy that able to choose someone who is either state or flows in and out of the body. This means the therapist has ease, illness, and pain, they indicate a block of been taught and tested in the areas of anatomy and such energy. Practitioners are taught to detect such physiology, pathology, massage technique, mas- blockages by passing their hands above the sage-related medical treatment, and ethics. Energy imbalances can be equal- ing of massage therapists is now required in 25 ized, therefore enabling the body to heal. As of states, and an increasing number of states are 1988, the method was taught in 80 colleges and adopting the National Certification Examination. To locate a therapist, contact is a gentle technique meant for stress reduction a local school of massage for the names of qualified and relaxation. Hot and cold stone massage concerned also with an individual’s posture and the uses rock formed by volcanic and sedimentary condition of his or her intestinal tract. More infor- action to manipulate the muscles and induce mation is available in the book Health through Inner relaxation and healing. These oils are used to affect the way you feel, such as to deepen relaxation, rid the mind of worry, meditation The art and science of quieting and or energize. Aromatherapy adds the air of luxury centering the mind and coordinating breathing for and pampering to a massage session. Before accept- the purpose of achieving deep relaxation and clar- ing such treatment, the client should be sure the ity of thinking. Check with a physician before related to one’s emotional or mental condition and having a massage treatment after recent surgery moods. Fourteen pathways uncommon for people with little or no formal edu- go to and from the hands and feet to the torso and 84 mesmerism head. Twelve main bilateral meridians correspond to beings possess a life force or energy beyond the the 12 major organs—liver, spleen, heart, stomach, physical constitution, and that energy may become kidneys, lungs, etc. Six meridians pertain to the blad- blocked or unbalanced in some way, causing illness der, gallbladder, stomach, small intestine, and large or injury or dysfunction. Moreover, the blockage intestine, and the Triple Burner (which regulates may be either physical or emotional, current or his- overall body temperature) is related to the trans- torical, in origin. Chinese practition- Acting as a catalyst for the client, the meta- ers believe imbalances, blockages, or disharmonies morphic practitioner uses a light touch on points along points of any of the meridians cause symptoms known as the spinal reflexes in the feet, hands, of illness. The Metamorphic Technique is not a therapy or a treatment, since it is not concerned mesmerism The technique of “animal magnet- with addressing specific symptoms or problems. It can be used alone or complement conventional or alternative medicine therapies. Metamorphic Technique An approach to self- No special training, abilities, or background are healing and personal development through elimi- needed in order to become a practitioner.

The effect is to provide sufficient blunt force from an ideal range of 10–30 m to stop an adult’s progress dutasteride 0.5mg visa hair loss 19 year old male. In one study (11) cheap dutasteride 0.5mg free shipping hair loss 4 month old, the most common injuries were bruising and abra- sions best buy for dutasteride hair loss shampoo, followed by lacerations without having retention of the actual bean bag. However, significant other serious injuries have been documented, including closed fractures, penetrating wounds with retention of the bean bag projectile (and at times parts of the shell and/or wadding), and internal organ damage. Blunt injuries included splenic rupture, pneumothorax, compartment syndrome, tes- ticular rupture, subcapsular liver hematoma, and cardiac contusions. It was noted that retention of the bag was not always suspected on an initial clinical examination, being detected on subsequent scans. Clearly, this device has potential for significant trauma to anywhere on the body. Just as with other nonlethal alternatives for restraint, the forensic physician should always consider why such techniques needed to be deployed; use of drugs or alcohol and psychiatric illness are all common concurrent prob- lems in these situations. Cooper, Biomedical Sciences, Defence Sci- ence and Technology Laboratory, Porton, England, for information regarding baton rounds, and Sgt. John Gall and colleagues from Australia for providing information rel- evant to their jurisdiction. Discussion of “Effects of the Taser in fatalities involving police con- frontation. Detainees may have to be interviewed regarding their involvement in an offense and possibly further detained overnight for court; guidance may therefore have to be given to the custodians regarding their care. Although various laws govern the powers of the police in different juris- dictions (1), the basic principles remain the same (2,3). If an individual who is detained in police custody appears to be suffering from a mental or physical illness and needs medical attention or has sustained any injuries whether at arrest or before arrest, such attention should be sought as soon as possible. Increasingly, the police have to deal with individuals who misuse alcohol and drugs or are mentally disordered; if the detainee’s behavior raises concern, medical advice should be sought. Custody staff should also seek medical advice if an individual requests a doctor or requires medication or if the custody staff members suspect that the detainee is suffering from an infectious disease and need advice. In some areas, when a person under arrest is discharged from the hospital and taken to a police station, a doctor is called to review the detainee and assess whether he or she is fit to be detained and fit for interview (4). Medical assessments of detainees may be performed by either a doctor or a nurse retained to attend the police station (5,6) or by staff in the local hospital accident and emergency department (7). The basic principles on which doctors should base their conduct have already been outlined in Chapter 2. The health and welfare of detainees should be paramount, with any forensic considerations of secondary importance. The role of any physician in this field should be independent, professional, courteous, and nonjudgmental. If the police bring a detainee to the accident and emergency department or if the health professional is contacted by the police to attend the police station, it is important to find out why a medical assessment is required. It is essential that the doctor or nurse be properly briefed by the custody staff or investigating officer (Table 1). Fully informed consent from the detainee should be obtained after explaining the reason for the examination. Detainees should understand that they are under no obligation to give consent and that there is no right to abso- lute confidentiality. Notwithstanding the latter, custody staff should be given only that information necessary for them to care for detainees while they are in police detention. Such information will include details of any medical con- cerns, required observations, medication, and dietary requirements. Although those detained in police custody are usually young, there remains the potential for considerable morbidity and mortality among this group. There- fore, it is essential that a full medical assessment be performed and detailed con- temporaneous notes made. A sufficient quantity of medication should be prescribed to cover the time in detention. The medication should be given to the police in appropri- ately labeled individual containers or sachets; alternatively, medication may be prescribed and collected from the local pharmacist. It is most important that there is a safe regimen for medication administra- tion to detainees. Records should be kept showing that the prescribed medica- tion is given at the correct time and that any unused medicines are accounted for. Ideally, police personnel should ensure that when administering medication they are accompanied by another person as a witness, and the detainee should be observed taking the medication to prevent hoarding. If detainees are arrested with medications on their persons, medical advice should be sought regarding whether they should be allowed to self-administer them. It may be prudent for a physical assessment to be performed either in the custody suite or in the local hospital before self-administration of medications. Medication brought with the prisoner or collected from the home address should be checked to ensure that it has the correct name and dosage and that the quantity left is consistent with the date of issue. If there is doubt, police person- nel should verify with the pharmacist, family doctor, or hospital. If the medicine is unlabeled, it is preferable to issue a new prescription, especially with liquid preparations, such as methadone. The detainee should have access to food and fluids as appropriate and should also have a period of rest of 8 hours during each 24 hours. Epilepsy Many detainees state that they have “fits” and there is a need to differen- tiate, if possible, between epilepsy and seizures related to withdrawal from alcohol or benzodiazepines; it is also important to consider hypoglycemia. The type of seizure should be ascertained, together with the frequency and date of the most recent one. Treatment may be given if the detainee is in posses- sion of legitimate medication; however, if he or she is intoxicated with alcohol or other central nervous system-depressant drugs, treatment should generally be deferred until the detainee is no longer intoxicated. The custody staff should have basic first aid skills to enable them to deal with medical emergencies, such as what to do when someone has a fit. If a detainee with known epilepsy has a seizure while in custody, a medical assess- ment is advisable, although there is probably no need for hospitalization. How- ever, if a detainee with known epilepsy has more than one fit or a detainee has a “first-ever” fit while in custody, then transfer to a hospital is recommended. Diazepam intravenously or rectally is the treatment of choice for status epilepticus (11). Any detainee requiring parenteral medication to control fits should be observed for a period in the hospital. Asthma Asthma is a common condition; a careful history and objective recording of simple severity markers, such as pulse and respiratory rate, blood pressure, speech, chest auscultation, mental state, and peak expiratory flow rate, should identify patients who require hospitalization or urgent treatment (Table 4) (12). Detainees with asthma should be allowed to retain bronchodilators for the acute relief of bronchospasm (e.

Ingestion: Taking in food Digestion: Changing the composition of food — splitting large molecules into smaller ones — to make it usable by the cells Deglutition: Swallowing effective dutasteride 0.5 mg hair loss in men 20s, or moving food from the mouth to the stomach Absorption: Occurs when digested food moves through the intestinal wall and into the blood Egestion: Eliminating waste materials or undigested foods at the lower end of the digestive tract; also known as defecation The alimentary tract develops early on in a growing embryo order generic dutasteride on-line hair loss medication related. The primitive gut buy generic dutasteride 0.5 mg line hair loss 4 months after baby, or archen- teron, develops from the endoderm (inner germinal layer) during the third week after concep- tion, a stage during which the embryo is known as a gastrula. At the anterior end (head end), the oral cavity, nasal passages, and salivary glands develop from a small depression called a stomodaeum in the ectoderm (outer germinal layer). The anal and urogenital structures develop at the opposite, or posterior, end from a depression in the ectoderm called the proctodaeum. In other words, the digestive tract develops from an endodermal tube with ectoderm at each end. Under normal conditions, food moves through your body in the following order (see Figure 9-1): Mouth → Pharynx → Esophagus → Stomach → Small intestine → Large intestine When you swallow food, it’s mixed with digestive enzymes in both saliva and stomach acids. Circular muscles on the inside of the tract and long muscles along the outside of the tract keep the material moving right through defecation at the end of the line. Use the terms that follow to identify the parts of the digestive system shown in Figure 9-1. The alimentary tract forms from the following layer(s) of the developing embryo: a. Mouth → Pharynx → Stomach → Esophagus → Small intestine → Large intestine Nothing to Spit At: Into the Mouth and Past the Teeth In addition to being very useful for communicating, the mouth serves a number of important roles in the digestive process: Chewing, formally known as mastication, breaks down food mechanically into smaller particles. The act of chewing increases blood flow to all the mouth’s structures and the lower part of the head. Saliva from salivary glands in the mouth helps prepare food to be swallowed and begins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates. Interestingly, studies have shown that taste preferences can change in reaction to the body’s specific needs. In addition, the smell of food can get gastric juices flowing in preparation for digestion. The mouth’s anatomy begins, of course, with the lips, which are covered by a thin, modified mucous membrane. The vestibule is the region between these dental arches, cheeks, and lips, whereas the oral cavity is the region inside the dental arches. Entering the vestibule The inner surface of the lips is covered by a mucous membrane. Within the mucous membrane are labial glands, which produce mucus to prevent friction between the lips and the teeth. The cheeks are made up of buccinator muscles and a buccal pad, a subcutaneous layer of fat. Elastic tissue in the mucous membrane keeps the lining of the cheeks from forming folds that would be bitten during chewing (usually — most people have bitten the insides of their cheeks at one time or another). Also stashed away in the cheek, just in front of and below each ear, is a parotid gland, which is the largest salivary gland; it releases saliva through a duct opposite the second upper molar tooth. Two other pairs of salivary glands also secrete into the mouth: the submaxillary glands along the side of the lower jaw and the sublingual glands in the floor of the mouth near the chin. The dental arches are formed by the maxillae (upper jaw) and the mandible (lower jaw) along with the gingivae (gums) and teeth of both jaws. The gingivae are dense, fibrous tissues attached to the teeth and the underlying jaw bones; they’re covered by a mucous membrane extending from the lips and cheeks to form a collar around the neck of each tooth. The gums are very vascular (meaning that lots of blood vessels run through them) but poorly innervated (meaning that, fortunately, they’re not generally very sensitive to pain). You have a number of different kinds of teeth, and each has a specific contribution to the process of biting and chewing. Babies between 6 months and 2 years old “cut,” or erupt, four incisors, two canines, and two molars in each jaw. These teeth are slowly replaced by permanent teeth from about 5 or 6 years of age until the final molars — referred to as wisdom teeth — erupt between 17 and 25 years of age. An adult human has the following 16 teeth in each jaw (for a total set of 32 teeth): Four incisors, which are chisel-shaped teeth at the front of the jaw for biting into and cutting food Two canines, or cuspids, which are pointed teeth on either side of the incisors for grasping and tearing Four premolars, or bicuspids, which are flatter, shallower teeth that come in pairs just behind the canines Six molars, which are triplets of broad, flat teeth on either side of the jawbone for grinding and mixing food prior to swallowing Regardless of type, each tooth has three primary parts, which you can see in Figure 9-2: Crown: The part that projects above the gum Neck: The region where the gum attaches to the tooth Root: The internal structure that firmly fixes the tooth in the alveolus (socket) Chapter 9: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System 147 Teeth primarily consist of yellowish dentin with a layer of enamel over the crown and a layer of cementum over the root and neck, which are connected to the bone by the periodontal membrane. Cementum and dentin are nearly identical in composition to bone; enamel consists of 94 percent calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate and is thickest over the chewing surface of the tooth. Depending on the structure of the tooth, the root can be a single-, double-, or even triple-pointed structure. In addition, each tooth has a pulp cavity at the center that’s filled with connective and lymphatic tissue, nerves, and blood vessels that enter the tooth through the root canal via an opening at the bottom called the apical foramen. Now you know why it hurts so much when dentists have to drill down and take out that part of an infected tooth! Moving along the oral cavity The roof of the oral cavity is formed by both the hard palate, a bony structure covered by fibrous tissue and the ever-present mucous membrane, and the soft palate, a mov- able partition of fibromuscular tissue that prevents food and liquid from getting into the nasal cavity. The uvula, a soft conical process (or piece of tissue), hangs in the center between those folds. Beyond the soft palate, the palatopharyngeal (or pharyngopalatine) arch curves sharply toward the midline and blends with the wall of the pharynx, ending at the dorsum (back) of the tongue. Another structure, the anterior palatoglossal (or glossopalatine) arch, starts on the surface of the palate at the base of the uvula and continues in a wide curve forward and downward, ending next to the posterior (back) one-third of the tongue. At the base of these arches and between the folds lie the palatine tonsils — if a surgeon hasn’t removed them because of frequent childhood infections. The faucial isthmus or oropharynx is the junction between the oral cavity and the pharynx (described in detail in Chapter 8). It opens during swallowing and closes when you move the dorsum of the tongue against the soft palate when breathing. The tongue The tongue, which is a tight bundle of interlaced muscles, and its associated mucous membrane form the floor of the oral cavity. Two distinct groups of muscles — extrinsic and intrinsic — are used in tandem for mastication (chewing), deglutition (swallowing), and to articulate speech. The extrinsic muscles, which are used to move the tongue in different directions, originate outside the tongue and are attached to the mandible, styloid processes of the temporal bone and the hyoid and, along with a fold of mucous membrane called the lingual frenulum, anchor the tongue. The intrinsic muscles are a complex muscle network allowing the tongue to change shape for talking, chewing and swallowing. Three primary types of papillae (nipple-shaped protrusions) cover the tongue’s for- ward upper surface: Filiform papillae are fine, brush-like papillae that cover the dorsum, the tip, and the lateral margins of the tongue. They have taste buds, which are special receptors that com- municate taste signals to the brain. Vallate papillae, also called circumvallate papillae, are flattened structures, each with a moat-like trough ringing it. There are 12 of these on the tongue, and they surround a V-shaped furrow toward the back of the tongue called the sulcus terminalis. There are no papillae on the back (posterior) one-third of the tongue; that part has only a mucous membrane covering lymphatic tissue, which forms the lingual tonsils.