By F. Pranck. Webb Institute.
Nonadsorbed (“plain”) preparations are less immunogenic for primary immunization or booster shots discount ceftin 500mg without a prescription bacteria staphylococcus aureus. Vaccine-induced maternal immunity is important in preventing maternal and neonatal tetanus buy ceftin no prescription antibiotics dogs. For major and/or contaminated wounds order discount ceftin infection after hysterectomy, a single booster injection of teta- nus toxoid (preferably Td) should be administered promptly on the day of injury if the patient has not received tetanus toxoid within the preceding 5 years. When antitoxin of animal origin is given, it is essential to avoid anaphylaxis by ﬁrst injecting 0. Pretest with a 1:1000 dilu- tion if there has been prior animal serum exposure, together with a similar injection of physiologic saline as a negative control. If after 15–20 minutes there is a wheal with surrounding erythema at least 3 mm larger than the negative control, it is necessary to desensitize the individual. Control of patient, contacts and the immediate environment: 1) Report to local health authority: Case report required in most countries, Class 2 (see Reporting). Metronidazole, the most appropriate antibiotic in terms of recovery time and case-fatality, should be given for 7–14 days in large doses; this also allows for a reduction in the amount of muscle relaxants and sedatives required. Maintain an adequate airway and employ sedation as indicated; muscle relaxant drugs together with tracheostomy or nasotracheal intubation and mechanically assisted respiration may be lifesaving. Epidemic measures: In the rare outbreak, search for contam- inated street drugs or other common-use injections. International measures: Up-to-date immunization against tet- anus is advised for international travellers. In the past 10 years the incidence of tetanus neonatorum has declined considerably in many developing countries thanks to improved training of birth attendants and to immunization with tetanus toxoid for women of childbearing age. Most newborn infants with tetanus have been born to nonimmunized mothers delivered by an untrained birth attendant outside a hospital. The disease usually occurs through introduction via the umbilical cord of tetanus spores during delivery through the use of an unclean instrument to cut the cord, or after delivery by ‘dressing’ the umbilical stump with substances heavily contaminated with tetanus spores, frequently as part of natal rituals. Tetanus neonatorum is typiﬁed by a newborn infant who sucks and cries well for the ﬁrst few days after birth but subsequently develops progres- sive difﬁculty and then inability to feed because of trismus, generalized stiffness with spasms or convulsions and opisthotonos. Overall, case-fatality rates for neonatal tetanus are very high, exceeding 80% among cases with short incubation periods. Neurological sequelae including mild retardation occur in 5% to over 20% of those children who survive. Prevention of tetanus neonatorum can be achieved through a combina- tion of 2 approaches: a) improving maternity care with emphasis on increasing the tetanus toxoid immunization coverage of women of child- bearing age (especially pregnant women), and b) increasing the propor- tion of deliveries attended by trained attendants. Important control measures include licensing of midwives; providing professional supervision and education as to methods, equipment and techniques of asepsis in childbirth; and educating mothers, relatives and attendants in the practice of strict asepsis of the umbilical stump of newborn infants. The latter is especially important in many areas where strips of bamboo are used to sever the umbilical cord or where ashes, cow dung poultices or other contaminated substances are traditionally applied to the umbilicus. In those areas, any woman of childbearing age visiting a health facility should be screened and offered immunization, no matter what the reason for the visit. Nonimmunized women should receive at least 2 doses of tetanus toxoid according to the following schedule: the ﬁrst dose at initial contact or as early as possible during pregnancy, the second dose 4 weeks after the ﬁrst and preferably at least 2 weeks before delivery. A third dose could be given 6–12 months after the second, or during the next pregnancy. A total of 5 doses protects the previously unimmunized woman through- out the entire childbearing period. Identiﬁcation—A chronic infection and usually mild disease, pre- dominantly of young children but increasingly recognized in adults, caused by migration of larval forms of toxocara species in the organs and tissues. It is characterized by eosinophilia of variable duration, hepatomeg- aly, hyperglobulinaemia, pulmonary symptoms and fever. Symptoms may persist for a year or longer; symptomatology is related to total parasite load. Pneumonitis, chronic abdominal pain, a generalized rash and focal neurological disturbances may occur, as may endophthalmitis (caused by larvae entering the eye), usually in older children; this can result in loss of vision in the affected eye (ocular larva migrans). Retinal lesions must be differentiated from retinoblastoma and other retinal masses. Severe disease occurs sporadically and affects mainly children aged 14–40 months, but also in older age groups. Siblings often have eosinophilia or other evidence of light or residual infection. Serological studies in asymptomatic children have shown a wide range in different populations. Internationally, seroprevalence ranges from lows of 0%–4% in Germany and urban Spain (Madrid) to 83% in some Caribbean subpopulations. Puppies are infected by transplacental and transmammary migration of larvae and pass eggs in their stools by the time they are 3 weeks old. Infection among bitches may end or become dormant with sexual maturity; with pregnancy, however, T. Similar though less marked differences apply for cats; older animals are less susceptible than young. Mode of transmission—For most infections in children, by direct or indirect transmission of infective toxocara eggs from contaminated soil to the mouth, directly by contact with infected soil or indirectly by eating unwashed raw vegetables. Some infections may occur through ingestion of larvae in raw liver from infected chickens, cattle and sheep. Eggs require 1–3 weeks’ incubation to become infective, but remain viable and infective in soil for many months; they are adversely affected by desiccation. After ingestion, embryonated eggs hatch in the intestine; larvae pene- trate the wall and migrate to the liver and other tissues via the lymphatic and circulatory systems. From the liver, larvae spread to other tissues, particularly the lungs and abdominal organs (visceral larva migrans) or the eyes (ocular larva migrans), and induce granulomatous lesions. The parasites cannot replicate in the human or other end-stage hosts; viable larvae may remain in tissues for years, usually in the absence of symptom- atic disease. When the tissues of end-stage hosts are eaten, the larvae may be infective for the new host. Incubation period—In children, weeks or months, depending on intensity of infection, reinfection and sensitivity of the patient. In infections through ingestion of raw liver, very short incubation periods (hours or days) have been reported. Susceptibility—Lower incidence in older children and adults relat- ing mainly to lesser exposure. Preventive measures: 1) Educate the public, especially pet owners, concerning sources and origin of the infection, particularly the danger of pica, of exposure to areas contaminated with feces of untreated puppies and of ingestion of raw or undercooked liver of animals exposed to dogs or cats. Parents of toddlers should be made aware of the risk associated with pets in the household and how to minimize them. Encourage cat and dog owners to practice responsible pet ownership, including prompt removal of pets’ feces from areas of public access.
Susceptibility—Susceptibility is general; while there is no absolute immunity conferred by infection order ceftin mastercard infection belly button, the severity of active disease due to reinfection gradually decreases over the childhood years and active infection is no longer seen in older children or young adults discount ceftin 500 mg mastercard infection lung. The severity of disease is often related to living conditions cheap ceftin 250mg on line bacteria without cell wall, particularly poor hygiene; exposure to dry winds, dust and ﬁne sand may also contribute. Although studies have shown that vaccines could prevent infection and reduce severity of infection, considerations of cost and time-limited effectiveness preclude their use. Preventive measures: 1) Educate the public on the need for personal hygiene, especially the risk of common-use towels. Control of patient, contacts and the immediate environment: 1) Report to local health authority: Case report required in some countries of low endemicity, Class 2 (see Reporting). Epidemic measures: In regions of hyperendemic prevalence, mass treatment campaigns have been successful in reducing severity and frequency when associated with education in personal hygiene, especially cleanliness of the face, and im- provement of the sanitary environment, particularly a good water supply. Identiﬁcation—A typically nonfatal, febrile bacterial septicemic disease varying in manifestations and severity, characterized by headache, malaise, pain and tenderness, especially on the shins. Onset is either sudden or slow, with a fever that may be relapsing (usually with a 5-day periodicity), typhoid-like or limited to a single febrile episode lasting several days. Symptoms may continue to recur many years after the primary infection, which may be subclinical with organisms circulating in the blood for months, with or without recurrence of symptoms. Endocarditis has been associated with trench fever infections especially among homeless or alcoholic individuals. The organism multiplies extracellu- larly in the gut lumen for the duration of the insect’s life, which is approximately 5 weeks after hatching. People are infected by inoculation of the organism in louse feces through a break in the skin. Infected lice begin to excrete infectious feces 5–12 days after ingesting infective blood; this continues for the remainder of their life span. The disease spreads when lice leave abnormally hot (febrile) or cold (dead) bodies in search of a normothermic host. Period of communicability—Organisms may circulate in the blood (thus infecting lice) for weeks, months or years and may recur with or without symptoms. The degree of postinfec- tion immunity to either reinfection or disease is unknown. Preventive measures: Delousing procedures: Dust clothing and body with an effective insecticide. Control of patient, contacts and the immediate environment: 1) Report to local health authority so that an evaluation of louse infestation in the population may be made and appropriate measures taken; Class 3 (see Reporting). Patients should ﬁrst be carefully evaluated for endocarditis, as this will change the duration and follow-up of antibiotherapy. Relapse may occur, despite antibiotherapy, in both immunocompro- mised and immunocompetent patients. Epidemic measures: Systematic application of residual insec- ticide to clothing of all people in affected population (see 9A). Disaster implications: Risk is increased when louse infested people are forced to live in crowded, unhygienic shelters (see 9B1). Identiﬁcation—A disease caused by an intestinal roundworm whose larvae (trichinae) migrate to and become encapsulated in the muscles. Clinical illness in humans is highly variable and can range from inapparent infection to a fulminating, fatal disease, depending on the number of larvae ingested. Sudden appearance of muscle soreness and pain together with oedema of the upper eyelids and fever are early characteristic signs. These are sometimes followed by subconjunctival, subungual and retinal hemorrhages, pain and photophobia. Thirst, profuse sweating, chills, weakness, prostration and rapidly increasing eosinophilia may follow shortly after the ocular signs. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, due to the intraintestinal activity of the adult worms, may precede the ocular manifestations. Remittent fever is usual, sometimes as high as 40°C (104°F); the fever terminates after 1–6 weeks, depending on intensity of infection. Cardiac and neurological complications may appear in the third to sixth week; in the most severe cases, death due to myocardial failure may occur in either the ﬁrst to second week or between the fourth and eighth weeks. Biopsy of skeletal muscle, taken more than 10 days after infection (most often positive after the fourth or ﬁfth week of infection), frequently provides conclusive evidence of infection by demonstrating the uncalciﬁed parasite cyst. Separate taxonomic designations have been accepted for isolates found in the Arctic (T. Occurrence—Worldwide, but variable in incidence, depending in part on practices of eating and preparing pork or wild animal meat and the extent to which the disease is recognized and reported. Cases usually are sporadic and outbreaks localized, often resulting from eating sausage and other meat products using pork or shared meat from Arctic mammals. Reservoir—Swine, dogs, cats, horses, rats and many wild animals, including fox, wolf, bear, polar bear, wild boar and marine mammals in the Arctic, and hyaena, jackal, lion and leopard in the tropics. Gravid female worms then produce larvae, which penetrate the lymphatics or venules and are disseminated via the bloodstream throughout the body. Incubation period—Systemic symptoms usually appear about 8–15 days after ingestion of infected meat; this varies from 5 to 45 days depending on the number of parasites involved. Animal hosts remain infective for months, and their meat stays infective for appreciable periods unless cooked, frozen or irradiated to kill the larvae (see 9A). Preventive measures: 1) Educate the public on the need to cook all fresh pork and pork products and meat from wild animals at a temperature and for a time sufﬁcient to allow all parts to reach at least 71°C (160°F), or until meat changes from pink to grey, which allows a sufﬁcient margin of safety. This should be done unless it has been established that these meat products have been processed either by heating, curing, freezing or irradi- ation adequate to kill trichinae. Control of patient, contacts and the immediate environment: 1) Report to local health authority: Case report required in most countries, Class 2 (see Reporting). In rare situations where infected meat is known to have been consumed, prompt administration of anthelmin- thic treatment may prevent development of symptoms. Identiﬁcation—A common and persistent protozoan disease of the genitourinary tract, characterized in women by vaginitis, with small petechial or sometimes punctate red “strawberry” spots and a profuse, thin, foamy, greenish-yellow discharge with foul odor. In men, the infectious agent invades the prostate, urethra or seminal vesicles; it often causes only mild symptoms but may cause as much as 5%–10% of nongonococcal urethritis in some areas. Diagnosis is through identiﬁcation of the motile parasite, either by microscopic examination of discharges or by culture, which is more sensitive. Occurrence—Widespread; a frequent disease, primarily of adults, with the highest incidence among females 16–35 years. Overall, about 20% of females may become infected during their reproductive years. Mode of transmission—Through contact with vaginal and ure- thral discharges of infected people during sexual intercourse.
Health-damaging behaviours such as smoking cheap ceftin 500 mg with visa oral antibiotics for acne minocycline, drinking generic 250 mg ceftin with visa antibiotic used for lyme disease, consuming unhealthy diets (rich in salt generic 250mg ceftin fast delivery treatment for uti in goats, sugar and fats, and low in vegetables and fruits) are also found to be common among the low socioeconomic group. However, personal behaviours are not only a matter of personal choice, but may be driven by factors such as higher levels of urbanization, technological change, market integration and foreign direct investment. National Health Pogrammes for Cancer and Blindness were started as early as 1975 and 1976 respectively, followed by programme on Mental Health in 1982. Some of the programmes were within the framework of National Rural Health Mission. These programmes have given insights of problems and experiences in implementation that would be useful in upscaling and expanding programmes across the country. Broadly, across programmes, following experiences were observed and lessons learnt in th implementation of programmes, which need to be addressed during the 12 Plan: 1. Convergence and integration would be critical in implementation of large number of interventions which would require unified management structure at various levels. Integration of cross cutting components like health promotion, prevention, screening of population, training, referral services, emergency medical services, public awareness programme management, monitoring & evaluation etc. Costs borne by the affected individuals and families may be catastrophic as treatment is long term and expensive. Investments during the 11 Plan and earlier plans have been more on provision of medical services which have not been adequate in the public sector. Private sector has grown particularly in urban settings but is beyond the reach of the poor and middle sections of the society. While Government of India’s role will be policy formulation, population based multi-setoral interventions, technical and financial th support, the onus of implementation will be with the States. To ensure convergence and integration with public health services, a decentralized approach is proposed with District as the management unit for programs. Oro-dental disorders (b) Programmes for Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation 10. Tertiary Care for advanced management of complicated cases including radiotherapy for cancer, cardiac emergency including cardiac surgery, neurosurgery, organ transplantation etc. Health Promotion & Prevention: Legislation, Population based interventions, Behaviour Change Communication using mass media, mid-media and interpersonal counselling and public awareness programmes in different settings (Schools, Colleges, Work Places and Industry). To ensure convergence, common districts will be selected for all three major programmes. The schemes would be flexible to meet local requirements as there would be 13 variation in prevalence and availability of existing health infrastructure. Airports, Ports and Land Borders covered 19 Neurological Disorders New All districts Thalassemia, Sickle Cell 20 New Pilot in selected endemic districts Disease and Hemophilia Estimated Budget It is envisaged that for comprehensive and sustainable programmes to prevent, control and manage important non-communicable diseases and key risk factors across the country, a large th investment would be required during the 12 Plan. Trauma, Disasters, Emergency Medical Services, Diseases of Bones &Joints, Mental Health and Health Care of the Elderly are disabling diseases and requiring investment for not only treatment but also rehabilitation. It is also important to invest on preventive programmes and health promotion to check occurrence of new cases and reduce at risk population. Nearly one-third of the budget would be required for primary health care in the rural areas. Secondary and tertiary level care is important to manage these chronic and fatal diseases and injuries and large share of the budget would be required to upgrade and strengthen District Hospitals, Medical Colleges and other Tertiary level institutions. About 80% of the burden occurs in low / middle-income countries, and 25% is in individuals younger than 60 years. This 4 goal had been presented as a formal action plan to the 61st World Health Assembly in 2008. Since the majority of deaths are premature there is a substantial loss of lives during the productive years as compared to other countries. The overall non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of death in the country, constituting 42% of all deaths. However, majority of ill-defined causes are at older ages (70 or higher years) and most of ill- defined deaths are likely to be from non-communicable diseases. Urban areas have a lower number of deaths from communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions but a higher proportion from non-communicable diseases (56%). Notable differences by gender are seen in the case of diarrhoeal diseases with 10% of women deaths against 7% of men deaths, tuberculosis with 5% of women deaths vis-à-vis 7% men deaths, and cardiovascular diseases with 17% women deaths versus 20% men deaths. Diabetes: Prevalence, increasing in both urban and rural areas, is in the range of 5–15 percent among urban populations, 4–6 percent in semi-urban populations, and 2–5 percent in rural populations. Hypertension: Present in 25 percent of the urban and 10 percent of the rural population. Cancer: Over 70 percent of cases are diagnosed during the advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival and high case mortality rates. Smoking: Prevalence is similar to other South Asian countries (men 33 percent, women 4 percent) while smoking prevalence among youth is higher (boys 17 percent, girls 9 percent). Smoking accounts for 1 in 5 deaths among men and 1 in 20 deaths among women, accounting for an estimated 930,000 deaths in 2010. Injuries: Road traffic injuries and deaths are on the increase along with the rapid economic growth. Annually, they result in more than 100,000 deaths, 2 million hospitalizations, and 7. Nonfatal road traffic injuries are highest among pedestrians, motorized two-wheeled vehicle users, and cyclists. This is a major problem among young populations, with three-quarters occurring among 15—45 year olds, predominantly among men. Diet: Exact data on consumption of oils/fats at the individual and household level are missing. The share of raw oil, refined oil, and vanaspati oil (hydrogenated oil) in the total edible oil market is estimated at 35 percent, 55 percent, and 10 percent, respectively. Trans fats are added to vanaspati oil, which is widely used in the commercial food industry to lengthen shelf life. India also loses a substantial number of lives during the productive years of its citizens. Low iincome grouups spent a higher propportion of thheir income on diabetess care (urbanpooor 34% and rural poor 227%). In adddition, the higghest increasein percenttage of houseehold income ddevoted to ddiabetes caree was also found to beein the loweest economicc group (344% of income iin 1998 vs. Smmaller propoortions of pooor patients tthan rich pattients received key treatmeents such as thrombolytiics (52. Acute evvents of carddiovascular ddiseases are aassociated wwith major heealth expensses owing too high cost of ddrugs, therappeutic proceddures, other hospital exppenses and wwage losses. Disstress financingg was low ammong the ricchest (36%) as compared to the pooorest (51%). In Inndia, the treaatment costs for an indivvidual with diabetes aree 15– 25% of ttheir househhold earninggs. One in ffour Indian ffamilies in wwhich a fammily membeer has heart diseease or strokke has catasttrophic expeenditure, pusshing 10% of these famiilies into povverty. Where faamilies have no access too affordable care, they foorego care oor risk financcial ruin; the poor 14 end up suuffering the wworst.
There were people who had been so savagely attacked by this cruel disease that their hideous appearances reflected a bad horror movie cheap 250 mg ceftin free shipping virus apparel. They were severely disfigured ceftin 250mg otc virus that causes cervical cancer, and nasty open sores dripped pus from their wretched bodies cheap 500mg ceftin with amex virus que causa el herpes. This dilemma is caused primarily because of the church’s incredible and irrational unbelief in God’s willingness to heal. We have the entirety of the Bible, and nearly two thousand years of Christian experience, and still we persist in unbelief. As far back as Exodus 15:26, God made a declaration to His people that should have settled for all time His position on healing. This faulty reasoning directly contradicts scriptures such as this one: “For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek [non-Jew]: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. Even a superficial reading of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, will prove conclusively that the religious leadership in Israel was extremely disconnected from God. They could have no more led a leper to the healing God of Exodus 15:26 than an elephant could have flown. There is a psychological dynamic that works within those who are afflicted with incurable diseases. In this search, Satan is faithful to keep our eyes off God and onto natural wisdom. If we do happen to fix our attention on God, the devil does all he can to distort our perception of Him and His desire to heal us. There are two favorite methods Satan uses to discourage us from believing God to heal us. It is sufficient to say that you may effectively identify and reject them by following one rule. That rule is to totally discard any doctrine from any person— and I mean any person—who gives you reason to believe God does not want to heal you. Grab onto the Jesus of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, and don’t let anyone take Him from you through unbelief or false doctrine. When we repent from our sins, and accept Jesus Christ as almighty God and savior, a grand and gracious thing takes place. God literally washes us from our sins in His own blood that was shed on the cross. We are, therefore, no longer simply outsiders trying to please a perfect God through works. When Satan attempts to steal your confidence in God for healing by accusing you of being unworthy, remember that healing is not granted based upon your own worthiness. Nonetheless, if Satan’s accusation is based upon a truth that you are currently living in sin, repent. This is consistent with the following scriptures: “Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. But he also knew that Jesus was without sin, and that he, himself, was a man under the bondage of sin. Anyone who touched a leper would be declared unclean and ostracized from the community. So it must have shocked the leper when Jesus reached out His hand and touched his diseased body! This is one of the most graphic and powerful illustrations of God’s love for the sick and suffering in the entire Bible. In other places in the Bible (Matthew 8:5-13; 15:22-28) Jesus healed people simply by speaking a word. Yet despite every reason to the contrary, Jesus deliberately chose to heal the man through His physical touch. And the prophet Isaiah the son of Amoz came to him, and said unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Set thine house in order; for thou shalt die, and not live. Then he turned his face to the wall, and prayed unto the Lord, saying, I beseech [beg] thee, O Lord, remember now how I have walked before thee in truth and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good in thy sight. And it came to pass, afore Isaiah was gone out into the middle court, that the word of the Lord came to him, saying, Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of my people, Thus saith the Lord, the God of David thy father, I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will heal thee: on the third day thou shalt go up unto the house of the Lord. In the story we find that one of God’s greatest prophets has been sent by God to deliver an ominous message to the sick ki ng. Alternative medicine, a special diet, the church’s prayer list (which often is nothing more than a dress rehearsal for the obituary)? The phrase, “turned his face to the wall,” means that he turned away from everything. So why would Hezekiah pray to God for something that was clearly not the will of God? Maybe Hezekiah understood that a thing is not necessarily the will of God simply because God discusses it or has foreknowledge of it. Desperate people don’t stop to rationally analyze all the reasons why they must fail. But there are others who hear the same doctor’s report and refuse to believe the report. What I am saying is they know that “the things which are impossible with men are possible with God. Keep this in your mind, and never, never let it go: When you are seeking God to be healed, break your clock and throw away your calendar. You cry out to God and exercise faith, and God will take care of the clock and calendar. Hezekiah’s Prayer Hezekiah’s desperate prayer is summarized as this: “I beseech thee, O Lord, remember now how I have walked before thee in truth and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good in thy sight. Even if God wants me dead, thought the dying king, I’ll desperately grasp for His mercy. At the center of Hezekiah’s cry for mercy was his testimony that he had served God with a perfect heart. Does this mean that Hezekiah was saying that he deserved to be healed because of his own perfection? For even though Hezekiah was indeed an outstanding servant of God, he fully understood that he was a sinner. What Hezekiah spoke of was a relationship of an imperfect man who was in love with a perfect God. King David wrote of this in Psalms 32:1-2, 5: “Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered. Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth [credits] not iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no guile…I acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid. I said, I will confess my transgressions unto the Lord; and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin.
In Pima Indians discount ceftin 250 mg on-line oral antibiotics for acne how long, a U-shaped relationship to birth 31 weight was found discount ceftin 500mg online antibiotics for uti pediatric, whereas no such relationship was found amongst Mexican Americans (21 discount ceftin 250mg on line infection 5 metal militia, 23). Higher birth weight has also been related to an increased risk of breast and other cancers (24). In sum, the evidence suggests that optimal birth weight and length distribution should be considered, not only in terms of immediate morbidity and mortality but also in regard to long-term outcomes such as susceptibility to diet-related chronic disease later in life. Both retarded growth and excessive weight or height gain (‘‘crossing the centiles’’) can be factors in later incidence of chronic disease. Blood pressure has been found to be highest in those with retarded fetal growth and greater weight gain in infancy (26). The risk of stroke, and also of cancer mortality at several sites, including breast, uterus and colon, is increased if shorter children display an accelerated growth in height (35, 36). Breastfeeding There is increasing evidence that among term and pre-term infants, breastfeeding is associated with significantly lower blood pressure levels in childhood (37, 38). Consumption of formula instead of breast milk in infancy has also been shown to increase diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure in later life (37). Nevertheless, studies with older cohorts (22) and the Dutch study of famine (39) have not identified such associations. There is increasingly strong evidence suggesting that a lower risk of developing obesity (40--43) may be directly related to length of exclusive breastfeeding although it may not become evident until later in childhood (44). Some of the discrepancy may be explained by socioeconomic and maternal education factors confounding the findings. Data from most, but not all, observational studies of term infants have generally suggested adverse effects of formula consumption on the other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (as well as blood pressure), but little information to support this finding is available from controlled clinical trials (45). Nevertheless, the weight of current evidence indicates adverse effects of formula milk on cardiovascular disease risk factors; this is consistent with the observations of increased mortality among older adults who were fed formula as infants (45--47). There has been great interest in the possible effect of high-cholesterol feeding in early life. Animal data in support of this hypothesis are limited, but the idea of a possible metabolic imprinting served to trigger several retrospective and prospective studies in which cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in infants fed human milk were compared with those fed formula. Studies in suckling rats have suggested that the presence of cholesterol in the early diet may serve to define a metabolic pattern for lipoproteins and plasma cholesterol that could be of benefit later in life. The study by Mott, Lewis & McGill (50) on differential diets in infant baboons, however, provided evidence to the contrary in terms of benefit. Nevertheless, the observation of modified responses of adult cholesterol production rates, bile cholesterol saturation indices, and bile acid turnover, depending on whether the baboons were fed breast milk or formula, served to attract further interest. It was noted that increased atherosclerotic lesions associated with increased levels of plasma total cholesterol were related to increased dietary cholesterol in early life. No long-term human morbidity and mortality data supporting this notion have been reported. Short-term human studies have been in part confounded by diversity in solid food weaning regimens, as well as by the varied composition of fatty acid components of the early diet. The latter are now known to have an impact on circulating lipoprotein cholesterol species (51). Mean plasma total cholesterol by age 4 months in infants fed breast milk reached 180 mg/dl or greater, while cholesterol values in infants fed formula tended to remain under 150 mg/dl. In a study by Carlson, DeVoe & Barness (52), infants receiving predominantly a linoleic acid- enriched oil blend exhibited a mean cholesterol concentration of approximately 110 mg/dl. A separate group of infants in that study who received predominantly oleic acid had a mean cholesterol concentration of 133 mg/dl. Using a similar oleic acid predominant formula, Darmady, Fosbrooke & Lloyd (53) reported 33 a mean value of 149 mg/dl at age 4 months, compared with 196 mg/dl in a parallel breast-fed group. Most of those infants then received an uncontrolled mixed diet and cow’s milk, with no evident differences in plasma cholesterol levels by 12 months, independent of the type of early feeding they had received. The significance of high dietary cholesterol associated with exclusive human milk feeding during the first 4 months of life has no demonstrated adverse effect. The regulation of endogenous cholesterol synthesis in infants appears to be regulated in a similar manner to that of adults (55, 56). Although based only on developed country research at this point, this finding gives credence to the importance that is currently attached to the role of immediate postnatal factors in shaping disease risk. Growth rates in infants in Bangladesh, most of whom had chronic intrauterine under- nourishment and were breastfed, were similar to growth rates of breastfed infants in industrialized countries, but catch-up growth was limited and weight at 12 months was largely a function of weight at birth (57). In a study of 11--12 year-old Jamaican children (26), blood pressure levels were found to be highest in those with retarded fetal growth and greater weight gain between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Low birth weight Indian babies have been described as having a characteristic poor muscle but high fat preservation, so-called ‘‘thin-fat’’ babies. This phenotype persists throughout the postnatal period and is associated with an increased central adiposity in childhood that is linked to the highest risk of raised blood pressure and disease (59--61). Relative weight in adulthood and weight gain have been found to be associated with increased risk of cancer of the breast, colon, rectum, prostate and other sites (36). Whether there is an independent effect of childhood weight is difficult to determine, as childhood overweight is usually continued into adulthood. Relative weight in adolescence was 34 significantly associated with colon cancer in one retrospective cohort study (63). Frankel, Gunnel & Peters (64), in the follow-up to an earlier survey by Boyd Orr in the late 1930s, found that for both sexes, after accounting for the confounding effects of social class, there was a significant positive relationship between childhood energy intake and adult cancer mortality. Given that short stature, and specifically short leglength, are particularly sensitive indicators of early socioeconomic deprivation, their association with later disease very likely reflects an association between early undernutrition and infectious disease load (27, 66). Height serves partly as an indicator of socioeconomic and nutritional status in childhood. As has been seen, poor fetal development and poor growth during childhood have been associated with increased cardio- vascular disease risk in adulthood, as have indicators of unfavourable social circumstances in childhood. Conversely, a high calorie intake in childhood may be related to an increased risk of cancer in later life (64). Height is inversely associated with mortality among men and women from all causes, including coronary heart disease, stroke and respiratory disease (67). Height has also been used as a proxy for usual childhood energy intake, which is particularly related to body mass and the child’s level of activity. However, it is clearly an imperfect proxy because when protein intake is adequate (energy appears to be important in this regard only in the first 3 months of life), genetics will define adult height (36). Protein, particularly animal protein, has been shown to have a selective effect in promoting height growth. It has been suggested that childhood obesity is related to excess protein intake and, of course, overweight or obese children tend to be in the upper percentiles for height. Height has been shown to be related to cancer mortality at several sites, including breast, uterus and colon (36). The risk of stroke is increased by accelerated growth in height during childhood (35). As accelerated growth has been linked to development of hypertension in adult life, this may be the mechanism (plus an association with low socioeconomic status). There is a higher prevalence of raised blood pressure not only in adults of low socioeconomic status (68--74), but also in children from low socioeconomic backgrounds, although the latter is not always associated 35 with higher blood pressure later in life (10). Blood pressure has been found to track from childhood to predict hypertension in adulthood, but with stronger tracking seen in older ages of childhood and in adolescence (75).