By A. Knut. Mississippi College.
Complications following vagotomy are extremely rare and do not influ- ence t he decision in operat ive t reat ment select ion D discount 5 mg lipitor visa cholesterol disease definition. Patients who develop recurrence following vagotomy and antrectomy should undergo gast ric acid analysis and serology t est ing for gast rin levels E buy generic lipitor 5 mg line cholesterol levels defined. A gast r ic u lcer that is refract or y t o medical t h erapy aft er 4 mont h s sh ou ld be considered for surgical therapy purchase lipitor 40 mg amex cholesterol in shrimp fried rice. The operation to be performed can be excision of t he ulcer and vagot omy wit h drainage procedure or a part ial gast r ect omy that in clu d es the u lcer an d the dist al st omach. If in fect ion is document ed, t reat ment will in clu de ant ibiot ics to eradicate H. The end result is gen er ally h yp er acid ic gast r odu od en al envir on m ent that can be aggr avat ed by H. The patient described has a type I gastric ulcer and this ulcer is not usually contributed to by hyperacidity. Ulcer surgeries are highly effective at reducing acid production from the st omach. The drawbacks of surgical t reat ment are mot ilit y disorders affect - ing gast ric empt ying and reduct ion in gast ric capacit y. Surgical t reat ment is most commonly performed today to address bleeding that is refractory to medical interventions and to address perforated ulcer disease. T h e patient wit h an ap p ar en t gast r ic u lcer u n d er goes m ed ical t h er ap y an d 3 months later, develops gastric outlet obstruction. A plausible explanation for this sequence of event s is that the gast ric ulcer t h ought t o be benign in nature is actually a gastric malignancy that has progressed over the ensu- ing 3 months to cause gastric outlet obstruction. P at ien t s wh o d evelop r ecu r r en t u lcer s followin g vagot om y an d an t r ect om y suggest unusual causes of t heir ulcer diseases such as excess gast rin produc- tion related to gastrinomas (Z ollinger– Ellison syndrome). An ulcer recur- rence following vagotomy and pyloroplasty can be salvaged with the addition of an antrectomy rather than a tot al gastrectomy. Risk of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, or anticoagulants. Beyond the stomach: an updated view of Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. The patient reports that the pain was colicky in nature at the onset but has become dull and persistent over the past few hours. He indi- cat e s that the sym p t o m s d e ve lo p e d sh o rt ly aft e r d in n e r the p re vio u s e ve - ning. Thinking that he had some bad food, the patient went to bed hoping that it would resolve. He woke up four times during the night and vomited copious amount of b ilious material. The p atient was well up to the time when symptoms began, and since the onset of symptoms, he has not passed flatus or stool. He has no current medical problems, except that 2 years ago, he had a la p a ro t o m y fo r p e rfo ra t e d a p p e n d icit is. His abdomen is distended, m ild ly t e n d e r t h ro u g h o u t, an d wit h o u t p e rit o n it is. Notethefluid-filled,dilatedsmallbowel lo o p s an d d e co m p re sse d sm all b o we l se e n in the rig h t lo we r q u a d ran t. H is abdomi- nal radiograph demonstrates a dilated stomach and dilated small bowel. All of the fin d in gs t oget h er are comp at ible wit h the d iagn osis of mech an ical small bowel obstruction. Next step in management: Place a nasogastric (N G) tube to help decompress his stomach and relieve his vomiting, initiate fluid resuscitation, place a Foley cat h et er t o h elp m on it or u r in e out put an d d et er m in e h is r esp on se t o flu id resuscitation. Complications associate with this disease process: Mechanical small bowel obstruction may cause bowel strangulation, bowel necrosis, bowel perforation, and sepsis. W hen unrecognized and unt reated, int ravascular fluid loss (from t hird-space fluid loss and vomit - ing) can cause prerenal azot emia and acut e kidney injury. Probable therapy: Explorat or y lapar ot omy or explorat or y lapar oscopy, because his clinical present at ion raises the concern for high-grade obstruction and the potential for bowel necrosis. Co n s i d e r a t i o n s An otherwise healt hy 37-year-old man present s wit h the sudden onset of colicky pain, vomit ing, abdominal distension, and obst ipation, which are typical signs and sympt oms compat ible wit h int est inal obst ruct ion. S ever e d ist en sion of the intestine is problematic because as the bowel gets more distended, venous con- gest ion in cr eases in the bowel wall, wh ich in t u r n con t r ibu t es t o the viciou s cycle of increased venous congest ion, bowel edema, worsening obst ruct ion, and eventually bowel ischemia. Other concerning features of this patient’s presentation include fever, t ach ycardia, leu kocyt osis, an d radiograph ic sign s of h igh -grade small bowel obstruction. Mechanical bowel obstruction causes “third-space” fluid losses, since there is shift of fluid from t he int ravascular space int o t he bowel lumen, t he bowel wall, as well as fluid loss into t he peritoneal cavit y. H is init ial response t o fluid resuscit a- tion will tell us whether bowel ischemia or dehydration is the problem. If his vit al sign s an d clin ical ap p ear an ce im p r ove sign ifican t ly wit h in the fir st 1 t o 2 hours, then his initial presenting symptoms are more likely related to fluid loss rather than bowel ischemia/ necrosis. Examples include small bowel incarceration in a tight hernia defect, intestinal volvulus, and a tight adhesive band obstructing the intestine in two areas. Comm on cau ses in clu d e localized an d syst em ic in flam mat or y/ in fect iou s processes, metabolic derangements, recent abdominal surgery/ trauma, and medi- cat ion s. Com m on examples in clu d e ileu s associat ed wit h acut e pan cr eat it is, ileu s associated with an appendicit is abscess, and postoperat ive ileus. The usual passage of the gallst one in t his situat ion is t h rough an opening between the gallbladder and the adjacent duodenum (cholecysto-duodenal fist u la). T h e obst r u ct ive p oin t is most com m on ly in the d ist al ileu m wh er e the luminal diameter is smaller. The study can h elp ident ify intest i- nal necrosis and high-risk features indicating high-grade obstruction, and intestinal vo lvu lu s. C T scan s are h elp fu l t o lo caliz e the p o in t o f o b st r u ct io n an d p r o vid e a “r o a d m a p ” f o r a m o r e f o c u s e d o p e r a t i ve a p p r o a c h s u c h a s a l a p a r o s c o p i c a p p r o a c h. Gastrografin is a water-soluble contrast material, and because of its hyperosmolar properties, Gastrografin the intestinal lumen causes flu id t o sh ift in t o the bowel lu men. This flu id sh ift d ecr eases the ed em a wit h in the intestinal wall and may promote resolution of the obstruction. In neonat es, infant s, and young ch ildren, hernias, malrot at ion, meconium ileus, Meckel diverticulum, intussusception, and intestinal atresia are the common causes of intest inal obst ruct ion. Clinically, when a patient presents with abdominal distension, vo m it in g, an d o b st ip at io n / co n st ip at io n, the d iagn o sis can b e eit h er in t est in al obstruction or ileus. O ften, a history of cramp-like pain will help differentiate mechanical obstructions from ileus. With mechanical bowel obstruction, the intest inal perist alsis often remains int act despit e intest inal narrowing or block- age. The goals in patients’ evaluation are to diagnose the bowel obstruc- tion, determine if the obstruction is partial or complete, and identify patients who might require timely surgical interventions (see Figure 18– 3). H owever, wh en the obstruction is located in the proximal small bowel (jejunum), patients may not have significant abdominal distention; instead, these patients may present with fr equ ent vom it in g. Patients presenting with these findings should be considered for early surgical treatment.
If nasal passages are blocked because of nasal congestion buy lipitor 10 mg on-line cholesterol/hdl ratio in canada, they should be cleared with a topical decongestant before glucocorticoid administration buy cheap lipitor 5mg on line cholesterol herbs. Oral Antihistamines Oral antihistamines (histamine-1 [H ] receptor antagonists) are first-line drugs1 for mild to moderate allergic rhinitis cheap lipitor 10mg free shipping high cholesterol diet chart. For therapy of allergic rhinitis, antihistamines are most effective when taken prophylactically and less helpful when taken after symptoms appear. Actions and Uses These drugs can relieve sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal itching; however, they do not reduce nasal congestion. Because histamine is only one of several mediators of allergic rhinitis, antihistamines are less effective than glucocorticoids. Antihistamines should be administered on a regular basis throughout the allergy season, even when symptoms are absent, to prevent an initial histamine receptor activation. Because histamine does not contribute to symptoms of infectious rhinitis, antihistamines are of no value against the common cold. Some patients take first-generation antihistamines for their drying effect; however, this may complicate treatment of colds by increasing the viscosity of secretions. The most common complaint is sedation, which occurs frequently with the first-generation antihistamines (e. Accordingly, second-generation agents are clearly preferred for students who need to remain alert in class and for patients who do work that requires alertness. Preparations, Dosage, and Administration Dosages for some popular H antagonists are presented in 1 Table 61. Intranasal Antihistamines Two antihistamines—azelastine [Astelin, Astepro] and olopatadine [Patanase]— are available for intranasal administration. Both drugs are indicated for allergic rhinitis in adults and children older than 12 years. Additionally, some patients experience nosebleeds and headaches with both azelastine and olopatadine. P ro t o t y p e D r u g s f o r A l l e r g i c R h i n i t i s, C o u g h, a n d C o l d s Intranasal Glucocorticoid Beclomethasone Antihistamines Azelastine (intranasal, nonsedating) Loratadine (oral, nonsedating) Intranasal Sympathomimetics (Decongestants) Phenylephrine (short acting) Oxymetazoline (long acting) Opioid Hydrocodone Nonopioid Dextromethorphan Intranasal Cromolyn Sodium The basic pharmacology of cromolyn sodium is discussed in Chapter 60. Actions and Uses For treatment of allergic rhinitis, intranasal cromolyn [NasalCrom] is extremely safe but only moderately effective. Cromolyn reduces symptoms by suppressing release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells. Accordingly, the drug is best suited for prophylaxis and hence should be given before symptoms start. Responses may take a week or two to develop; patients should be informed of this delay. Adverse reactions are minimum—less than with any other drug for allergic rhinitis. Preparations, Dosage, and Administration For treatment of allergic rhinitis, cromolyn sodium is available in a metered-dose spray device that delivers 5. If nasal congestion is present, a topical decongestant should be used before cromolyn. Like the antihistamines and glucocorticoids, cromolyn should be dosed on a regular schedule throughout the allergy season. Sympathomimetics (Decongestants) Actions and Uses Sympathomimetics reduce nasal congestion by activating alpha -adrenergic1 receptors on nasal blood vessels. This causes vasoconstriction, which in turn causes shrinkage of swollen membranes followed by nasal drainage. In addition to their use in allergic rhinitis, sympathomimetics can reduce congestion associated with sinusitis and colds. Adverse Effects Rebound Congestion Rebound congestion develops when topical agents are used more than a few days. With prolonged use, as the effects of each application wear off, congestion becomes progressively worse. To overcome this rebound congestion, the patient must use progressively larger and more frequent doses. Once established, rebound congestion can lead to a cycle of escalating congestion and increased drug use. The cycle can be broken by abrupt decongestant withdrawal; however, this tactic can be extremely uncomfortable. An even better option is to use an intranasal glucocorticoid (in both nostrils) for 2 to 6 weeks, starting 1 week before discontinuing the decongestant. Development of rebound congestion can be minimized by limiting topical application to 3 to 5 days. Accordingly, topical sympathomimetics are not appropriate for individuals with chronic rhinitis. Cardiovascular Effects By activating alpha -adrenergic 1 receptors on systemic blood vessels, sympathomimetics can cause widespread vasoconstriction. However, if used in excess, even the topical agents can cause significant systemic vasoconstriction. However, for individuals with cardiovascular disorders—hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, cerebrovascular disease—widespread vasoconstriction can be hazardous. Also, it can be readily converted to methamphetamine, a widely used drug of abuse. To reduce the availability of pseudoephedrine for methamphetamine production, Congress passed the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, which requires that all products containing pseudoephedrine be placed behind the counter (even though it can still be purchased without a prescription in some states). Because of these constraints, many products are being reformulated to contain phenylephrine rather than ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Factors in Topical Administration General Considerations Because of the risk for rebound congestion, topical sympathomimetics should be used for no more than 3 to 5 consecutive days. To avoid systemic effects, doses should not exceed those recommended by the manufacturer. Drops Drops should be administered with the patient in a lateral, head-low position. This causes the drops to spread slowly over the nasal mucosa, thereby promoting beneficial effects while reducing the amount that is swallowed. Because the number of drops can be precisely controlled, drops allow better control of dosage than do sprays. Accordingly, because young children are particularly susceptible to toxicity, drops are preferred for these patients. Although convenient, sprays are less effective than an equal volume of properly instilled drops. Contrasts Between Oral and Topical Agents Oral and topical sympathomimetics differ in several important respects. First, topical agents act faster than the oral agents and are usually more effective.
If an injury occurs to one part of the body cheap lipitor 10mg without a prescription cholesterol foods cause high, what is the expected clinical manifestation? Given an anomaly such as weakness or numbness order lipitor with a mastercard cholesterol levels home kit, what other symptoms or signs would the patient most likely have? Given the importance of a certain required function purchase lipitor online from canada low cholesterol eggs in india, which anatomical struc- ture provides the ability to perform that function? When approaching the upper extremity, for instance, the student may begin with the statement, “The upper extremity must be able to move in many dif- ferent directions to be able to reach up (flexion), reach backward (extension), reach to the side (abduction), bring the arm back (adduction), or turn a screw- driver (pronation/supination). Thus, the shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint to allow movement in the dif- ferent directions required. This is the counterpart to the previous question regarding the relation between function and structure. The student should try to be imaginative and not merely accept the textbook (rote) information. For example, a student might speculate as to why bones contain marrow and are not completely solid and might theorize as follows: “The main purpose of bones is to support the body and protect various organs. If the bones were solid, they might be slightly stronger, but they would be much heavier and be a detriment to the body. Thus, by having the marrow within the center of the bone, the process is protected. It is also one of the major questions that a clinician must answer when evaluating a patient. In clinical problem solving, the physician elicits information by asking ques- tions (taking the history) and performing a physical examination while mak- ing observations. A thorough understanding of the anatomy aids the clinician tremen- dously because most diseases affect body parts under the skin and require “seeing under the surface. Therefore, two pos- sibilities are a spinal cord problem involving those nerve roots or a peripheral nerve lesion. The internal pudendal nerve innervates the perineal region and is involved with micturition. Which lymph nodes are most likely to be affected by cancer at a particular location? The lymphatic drainage of a particular region of the body is important because cancer may spread through the lymphatics, and lymph node enlargement may result from infection. The clinician must be aware of these pathways to know where to look for metastasis (spread) of cancer. For example, if a cancer is located on the vulva labia majora (or the scrotum in the male), the most likely lymph node involved is a superficial inguinal node. The clinician would then be alert to palpating the inguinal region for lymph node enlargement, which would indicate an advanced stage of cancer and a worse prognosis. If an injury occurs to one part of the body, what is the expected clinical manifestation? If a laceration, tumor, trauma, or bullet causes injury to a specific area of the body, it is important to know which crucial bones, muscles, joints, vessels, and nerves might be involved. For example, the thinnest part of the skull is located in the tem- poral region, and underneath this is the middle meningeal artery. Given an anomaly such as weakness or numbness, what other symptoms or signs would the patient most likely have? The student must be able to (a) deduce the initial injury on the basis of clinical findings, (b) determine the probable site of injury, and (c) make an educated guess as to which other structures are in close proximity and, if injured, what the clinical manifestations would be. To develop skill in discerning these relationships, one can begin from a clinical finding, propose an anatomical deficit, propose a mechanism or loca- tion of the injury, identify another nerve or vessel or muscle in that location, propose the new clinical finding, and so on. Knowledge of male–female homologous correlates is important in understand- ing the embryologic relations and, hence, the resultant anatomical relations because fewer structures need to be memorized, as homologous relations are easier to discern than are two separate structures. The ovarian arteries arise from the abdominal aorta below the renal arteries; likewise, the testicular arter- ies arise from the abdominal aorta. Her prenatal course was complicated by diabetes, which developed during pregnancy. The infant was noted to have a good cry and pink color but was not moving its right arm. There is shoulder dystocia (the infant’s shoul- ders are stuck after delivery of the head). In this situation, the fetal head emerges, but the shoulders become wedged behind the maternal symphysis pubis. An obstetrician will use maneuvers such as flexion of the maternal hips against the maternal abdomen (McRobert maneuver) or fetal maneu- vers such as pushing the fetal shoulders into an oblique position. These actions are designed to allow delivery of the fetal shoulders without excessive traction on the fetal neck. Despite such carefully executed maneuvers, infants may be born with stretch injuries to the brachial plexus, resulting in nerve palsies. The most common of these is an upper brachial plexus stretch injury, in which nerve roots C5 and C6 are affected, resulting in weakness of the infant’s arm. Be able to describe the spinal cord segments, named terminal branches, and motor and sensory deficits of an upper brachial plexus injury 2. Be able to describe the mechanism, spinal cord segments, named terminal branches, and motor and sensory deficits of a lower brachial plexus injury 3. It is formed by the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C5 through C8 and most of T1. The network of nerves that form the brachial plexus is divided anatomically from proximal (medial) to distal (lateral) into roots, trunks, divi- sions, cords, and terminal branches (mnemonic: “Randy Travis drinks cold Texas beer”). The roots of the plexus emerge from between the anterior and mid- dle scalene muscles together with the subclavian artery. Arising from the roots are branches to the longus colli and scalene muscles and the dorsal scapular and long thoracic nerves. The suprascapular nerve and the nerve to the subclavius muscle arise from the superior trunk. Each trunk is divided into anterior and posterior divisions, which will innervate musculature of the anterior and posterior compartments, respectively (Figure 1-1). The anterior divisions of the superior and middle trunks unite to form the lateral cord, which branches off to the lateral pectoral nerve. The anterior division of the inferior trunk continues distally as the medial cord, whose branches are the medial pectoral, medial brachial cutaneous, and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves. The posterior divisions of all three trunks unite to form the posterior cord, and its branches are the upper and lower subscapular and thoracodorsal nerves. The three cords are named according to their relation to the axillary artery, which passes through the plexus at this level. The terminal branches of the brachial plexus are the axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, and radial nerves. The axillary nerve (C5 and C6) arises from the posterior cord and courses poste- riorly around the surgical neck of the humerus, where it is at risk for injury.
Improvement throughout the day after approximately 1 to 2 hours of “u n f r e e z i n g the j o i n t ” M a tch the fo llo wingdisea se p ro cesses(A-F)to the clinica lsettingdescribed in Q uest ions 31 buy lipitor overnight cholesterol shrimp squid. W hich of the following is the best first medication to prescribe for this patient? Osteoarthritis is a major cause of decreased functional status in elderly patients and requires ongoing treatment and evaluation by the physician to try to improve symptoms and to promote mobility order lipitor once a day cholesterol in chicken eggs. G out y ar t h r it is oft en affect s the fir st met at ar soph alan geal joint an d can be precipitated by various foods or alcohol order lipitor with mastercard high cholesterol definition uk. Cervical discharge and inflammatory joint are consistent with gonococcal arthrit is, which can also present as a migratory art hrit is. The location and asymmetry of joint involvement, lack of inflammatory signs, and worsening wit h exert ion all are charact erist ic of O A. Acet am in oph en is the fir st agen t of ch oice in the t r eat m ent of ear ly ost eo- art hrit is. Jo in t r e p la c e - ment for severe osteoarthritis is reserved for patients with intractable pain despite medical therapy and for those with severe functional limitations. She has had this pain off and on for several years; however, for the past 2 days it is worse than it has ever been. It started after she vigorously vacu u m e d a ru g, is p rim a rily o n the rig h t lo we r sid e, ra d ia t e s d o wn h e r p o st e rio r right thigh to her knee, b ut is not associated with any numb ness or tingling. It is re lie ve d b y la yin g fla t o n h e r b a ck wit h h e r le g s slig h t ly e le va t e d a n d le sse n e d some what when she take s ib up rofen 400 mg. Excep t for mod erate ob esit y and difficult y mane uvering onto the examination tab le b ecause of p ain, her exami- nation is fairly normal. The only abnormalities you note are a positive straight le g ra ise t e st, wit h ra isin g the rig h t le g e licit in g m o re p a in t h a n the le ft. Most likely diagnosis: Musculoskelet al low back pain, possible sciat ica wit h out neurologic deficits. Next step: Encourage cont inuat ion of usual act ivit y, avoiding t wist ing mot ions or heavy lifting. Learn the history and physical examination findings that help to distinguish benign musculoskeletal low back pain from more serious causes of low back pain. Understand the variety of treatment options and their effectiveness in low back pain. Learn the judicious use of laboratory and imaging tests in evaluating low back pain. Co n s i d e r a t i o n s This 45 year old patient with chronic back pain has an acute exacerbation with pain radiating down her leg, which may indicate possible sciatic nerve compression. She has no other neurologic abnormalities, such as sensory deficits, motor weakness, or “r e d f l a g” s y m p t o m s o f m o r e s e r i o u s e t i o l o g i e s o f b a c k p a i n, w h i c h i f p r e s e n t w o u l d demand a more urgent evaluation. Thus, this individual has a good prognosis for recovery with conservative therapy, perhaps time being the most important factor. This complaint is most common in adults in their working years, usually affecting patients between 30 and 60 years. Although it is common in workers required to perform lifting and twisting, it is also a common complaint in those who sit or st and for prolonged periods. Low back pain is a recurrent disease t hat t ends t o be mild in younger pat ient s, often resolving within 2 weeks, but can be more severe and prolonged as t he pat ient ages. It is one of t he most common reasons for young adult s t o seek medical care, second only to upper respirat ory infect ions, and mil- lions of h ealt h care dollars are expended on this problem each year. In evaluat ing patient s with low back pain, the clinician needs to exclude potentially serious con- ditions, such as malignancy, infection, an d dan ger ou s n eu r ologic pr ocesses, su ch as spinal cord compression or cauda equina syndrome. In dividuals wit h out t h ese con - ditions are initially managed with conservative therapy. Nearly all patients recover spont aneously wit hin 4 t o 6 weeks; only 3% t o 5% remain disabled for more t han 3 months. If patients do not improve within 4 weeks with conservative management, they should undergo further evaluation to rule out systemic or rheumatic disease and to clarify t he anatomic cause, especially pat ient s with localized pain, nocturnal pain, or sciatica. R ar ely, it can be a r esu lt of r efer r ed pain from a visceral organ or other structure. Back pain with radiation down the back of the leg suggests sciatic nerve root compression, gen erally cau sed by a h er n i- ated intervertebral disk at the L4 - L5 or L5 - S 1 level. Pat ien t s t yp ically r ep or t ach in g pain in the buttock and paresthesias radiating into the posterior thigh and calf or lat eral foreleg. W h en pain radiat es below the knee, it is more likely t o indicat e a t rue radiculopathy than radiation only to the posterior thigh. A history of persistent leg numbness or weakness further increases the likelihood of neurologic involvement. Most cases of back pain are idiopathic, and this group, in general, is referred to as nonspecific low back pain, which is usually of musculoskelet al origin. In patients with back pain <4 weeks duration and no associated symptoms, imaging studies and other diagnostic tests are generally not helpful in managing these cases. Searching for “red flag” symptoms can help the physician use diagnostic tests in a more judicious manner (Table 32– 2). Malignancy should be considered in pat ient s wit h systemic symptoms and who have pain at night or pain that is not relieved by lying in a supine position. Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neo- plasm that can present with bone pain, renal failure, and anemia. W hen the pat ient has worrisome symptoms or signs, in most cases, the most effective initial evalu- at ion is plain anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of t he involved area of the spine, a sediment at ion rat e, and a complet e blood count. Another caveat to remember is that imaging studies often have abnormal findings, even in pat ient s wit hout low back pain, making it difficult t o cor r elat e symp t oms wit h imagin g fin d in gs. Psychological causes have not been consistently related to low back pain; however, there does seem to be an associat ion with job satisfaction. D uring the physical examination, palpable point tenderness over the spinous processes may indicate a destructive lesion of the spine itself; in contrast, those with musculoskeletal back pain most often have tenderness in the muscular paraspinal area. Strength, sensation, and reflexes should be assessed, especially in t hose with complaint s of radicular or radiat ing pain. Straight leg raise testing, in wh ich the exam in er h old s the pat ient ’s an kle and passively elevates the patient’s leg to 45°, is helpful if it elicit s pain in the lower back suggest ing nerve root compression. T h e Pat r ick man euver, in wh ich the pat ient ext er n ally r ot at es the hip, flexes the knee, and crosses the knee of the other leg with the ankle (like a number 4) while the examiner simultaneously presses down on the flexed knee and the opposite side of the pelvis, can help distinguish pain emanating from the sacroiliac joint. In treating idiopathic low back pain, various modalities have been shown to be equally effect ive in t he long run. Randomized, cont rolled t rials have shown t hat encouraging t he pat ient t o cont inue his or her usual activity is superior to recom- mendations for bed rest. Pat ient s wit h out disabilit y an d wit h out eviden ce of n er ve root compression probably can maint ain judicious activity rather than undergoing bed rest. Bed rest probably is appropriate only for individuals with severe pain or neurologic deficits.
It should be noted that stimulants do not create positive behavior; they only reduce negative behavior cheap 20mg lipitor otc is there cholesterol in eggs good for you. Accordingly discount lipitor 10mg fast delivery cholesterol test youtube, stimulants cannot give a child good study skills and other appropriate behaviors buy cheap lipitor 10mg on-line cholesterol levels versus age. Rather, these must be learned when the disruptive behavior is no longer an impediment. Growth reduction can be minimized by administering stimulants during or after meals (which reduces the impact of appetite suppression). In addition, some clinicians recommend taking “drug holidays” on weekends and in the summer (which creates an opportunity for growth to catch up). However, other clinicians argue against this strategy because depriving children of medication during these unstructured times can be hard on them. When stimulants are discontinued, a rebound increase in growth will take place; as a result, adult height may not be affected. Other adverse effects include headache and abdominal pain, which have an incidence of 10%, and lethargy and listlessness, which can occur when dosage is excessive. The nonstimulants are less effective than the stimulants and hence are considered second-choice drugs. Unlike the stimulants, the nonstimulants are not regulated as controlled substances. Atomoxetine, a Norepinephrine Uptake Inhibitor Description and Therapeutic Effects. As a result, prescriptions can be refilled over the phone, making atomoxetine more convenient than the stimulants. It should be noted that responses develop slowly: the initial response takes a few days to develop, and the maximal response is seen in 1 to 3 weeks. Although the precise relationship between this neurochemical action and symptom relief is unknown, it would appear that adaptive changes that occur after uptake blockade underlie benefits. Uptake blockade occurs immediately, whereas full therapeutic effects are not seen for at least a week—suggesting that, after uptake blockade occurs, additional processes must take place before benefits can be seen. Plasma levels peak in 1 to 3 hours, depending on whether the drug was taken without or with food. If allergy develops, patients should discontinue the drug and contact their prescriber immediately. Atomoxetine may cause suicidal thinking in children and adolescents, but not in adults. Young patients should be monitored closely for suicidal thinking and behavior and for signs of clinical worsening (e. Among children who took atomoxetine for 18 months or longer, mean height and weight percentiles declined. Atomoxetine poses a small risk for severe liver injury that may progress to outright liver failure, resulting in death or the need for a liver transplantation. Patients should be informed about signs of liver injury—jaundice, dark urine, abdominal tenderness, unexplained flu-like symptoms—and instructed to report these immediately. In the event of jaundice or laboratory evidence of liver injury, atomoxetine should be discontinued. During clinical trials, some patients experienced a small increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Accordingly, atomoxetine should be used with caution by patients with hypertension or tachycardia. During postmarketing surveillance, some patients experienced hypotension and syncope (fainting). Patients should be informed of this possibility and advised to sit or lie down if they feel faint. Effects on blood pressure are most pronounced during initial therapy and whenever dosage is increased. In contrast to the stimulants, guanfacine causes weight gain rather than weight loss, causes somnolence rather than insomnia, and is not regulated under the Controlled Substances Act. Because the drug does not cause anorexia or insomnia, it might be especially good for children who cannot tolerate these effects of stimulants. As with guanfacine, principal side effects are somnolence, fatigue, and hypotension. Because clonidine can lower blood pressure (and slow heart rate too), blood pressure and heart rate should be measured at baseline, following each dose increase, and periodically thereafter. Like guanfacine, clonidine does not cause anorexia or insomnia and is not a controlled substance. Throughout history, people have taken drugs to elevate mood, release inhibitions, distort perceptions, induce hallucinations, and modify thinking. Many of those who take mind-altering drugs restrict use to socially approved patterns. In addition to putting people at risk for death, drug abuse puts them at risk for long-term illness and impairs their ability to fulfill role obligations at home, school, and work. The economic burden of drug abuse is staggering: the combined direct and indirect costs from abusing nicotine, alcohol, and illicit substances are estimated at over $700 billion each year. Drug abuse confronts clinicians in a variety of ways, making knowledge of abuse a necessity. Important areas in which expertise on drug abuse may be applied include (1) diagnosis and treatment of acute toxicity, (2) diagnosis and treatment of secondary medical complications of drug abuse, (3) facilitating drug withdrawal, and (4) providing education and counseling to maintain long-term abstinence. In Chapters 31, 32, and 33, we focus on the pharmacology of specific abused agents and methods of treatment. Definitions Drug Abuse Drug abuse can be defined as using a drug in a fashion inconsistent with medical or social norms. Traditionally, the term also implies drug use that is harmful to the individual or society. As we shall see, although we can give abuse a general definition, deciding whether a particular instance of drug use constitutes “abuse” is often difficult. Whether or not drug use is considered abuse depends, in part, on the purpose for which a drug is taken. For example, we do not consider it abuse to take large doses of opioids long term to relieve pain caused by cancer. However, we do consider it abusive for an otherwise healthy individual to take those same opioids in the same doses to produce euphoria. Some people, for example, use heroin only occasionally, whereas others use it habitually and compulsively. Although both patterns of drug use are socially condemned and therefore constitute abuse, there is an obvious quantitative difference between taking heroin once or twice and taking it routinely and compulsively. Because abuse is culturally defined, and because societies differ from one another and are changeable, there can be wide variations in what is labeled abuse. For example, in the United States, moderate consumption of alcohol is not usually considered abuse. In contrast, any ingestion of alcohol may be considered abuse in some Muslim societies. Furthermore, what is defined as abuse can vary from one time to another within the same culture.
Erythromycin is selectively toxic to bacteria because ribosomes in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells do not bind the drug generic lipitor 10 mg amex cholesterol total chart. Also order genuine lipitor cholesterol za wysoki przyczyny, in contrast to chloramphenicol (see later) 20 mg lipitor overnight delivery cholesterol free kerala foods, erythromycin cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane and therefore does not inhibit protein synthesis in host mitochondria. Acquired Resistance Bacteria can become resistant by two mechanisms: (1) production of a pump that exports the drug and (2) modification (by methylation) of target ribosomes so that binding of erythromycin is impaired. Antimicrobial Spectrum Erythromycin has an antibacterial spectrum similar to that of penicillin. The drug is active against most gram-positive bacteria as well as some gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial sensitivity is determined in large part by the ability of erythromycin to gain access to the cell interior. The drug is a treatment of first choice for several infections and may be used as an alternative to penicillin G in patients with penicillin allergy. Erythromycin is considered the drug of first choice for individuals infected with Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Accordingly, erythromycin is the treatment of choice for acute diphtheria and eliminating the diphtheria carrier state. Both are drugs of first choice for certain chlamydial infections (urethritis, cervicitis) and for pneumonia caused by M. Pharmacokinetics Absorption and Bioavailability Erythromycin for oral administration is available in three forms: erythromycin base and two derivatives of the base: erythromycin stearate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate. The base is unstable in stomach acid, and its absorption can be variable; the derivatives were synthesized to improve bioavailability. Bioavailability has also been enhanced by formulating tablets with an acid- resistant coating, which protects erythromycin while in the stomach and then dissolves in the duodenum, permitting absorption from the small intestine. As a rule, food decreases the absorption of erythromycin base and erythromycin stearate, whereas absorption of erythromycin ethylsuccinate is not affected. Only erythromycin base is biologically active; the derivatives must be converted to the base (either in the intestine or after absorption) in order to work. Erythromycin crosses the placenta, but adverse effects on the fetus have not been observed. Adverse Effects Erythromycin is generally free of serious toxicity and is considered one of our safest antibiotics. Gastrointestinal Effects Gastrointestinal disturbances (epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) are the most common side effects. However, this should be done only when using erythromycin products whose absorption is unaffected by food (erythromycin ethylsuccinate, certain enteric-coated formulations of erythromycin base). Other Adverse Effects By killing off sensitive gut flora, erythromycin can promote superinfection of the bowel. There is evidence that erythromycin may cause hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in infants, especially those younger than 2 weeks. Drug Interactions Erythromycin can increase the plasma levels and half-lives of several drugs, thereby posing a risk for toxicity. Elevated levels are a concern with theophylline (used for asthma), carbamazepine (used for seizures and bipolar disorder), and warfarin (an anticoagulant). Accordingly, when these agents are combined with erythromycin, the patient should be monitored closely for signs of toxicity. Erythromycin prevents binding of chloramphenicol and clindamycin to bacterial ribosomes, thereby antagonizing their antibacterial effects. Accordingly, concurrent use of erythromycin with these two drugs is not recommended. As noted, erythromycin should not be combined with drugs that can inhibit erythromycin metabolism. After absorption, clarithromycin is widely distributed and readily penetrates cells. Adverse Effects and Interactions Clarithromycin is well tolerated and does not produce the intense nausea seen with erythromycin. The most common reactions (3%) have been diarrhea, nausea, and distorted taste—all described as mild to moderate. In clinical trials, only 3% of patients withdrew because of side effects, compared with 20% of those taking erythromycin. High doses of clarithromycin have caused fetal abnormalities in laboratory animals; possible effects on the human fetus are unknown. Like erythromycin, clarithromycin can inhibit hepatic metabolism of other drugs and can thereby elevate their levels. Azithromycin Actions and Therapeutic Uses Like erythromycin, azithromycin [Zithromax, Zmax] binds the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, causing inhibition of protein synthesis. The drug is used for respiratory tract infections, cholera, chancroid, otitis media, uncomplicated infections of the skin and skin structures, disseminated M. It may also be used as a substitute for penicillin G in penicillin-allergic patients. Pharmacokinetics Absorption of azithromycin is decreased by food, and hence dosing should occur on an empty stomach. After absorption, azithromycin is widely distributed to tissues and becomes concentrated in cells. Adverse Effects and Interactions Like clarithromycin, azithromycin is well tolerated and does not produce the intense nausea seen with erythromycin. Aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids reduce the rate (but not the extent) of absorption. In contrast to erythromycin and clarithromycin, azithromycin does not inhibit the metabolism of other drugs. However, there is concern that azithromycin may enhance the effects of warfarin (an anticoagulant) and may thereby pose a risk for bleeding. In patients taking both drugs, prothrombin time should be closely monitored to ensure that anticoagulation remains at a safe level. Mechanism of Action Clindamycin binds to the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. The site at which clindamycin binds overlaps the binding sites for erythromycin and chloramphenicol. Accordingly, there are no indications for concurrent use of clindamycin with these other antibiotics. Antimicrobial Spectrum Clindamycin is active against most anaerobic bacteria (gram positive and gram negative) and most gram-positive aerobes. Susceptible anaerobes include Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium species, Clostridium perfringens, and anaerobic streptococci. Therapeutic Use Because of its efficacy against gram-positive cocci, clindamycin has been used widely as an alternative to penicillin. Clindamycin is the drug of choice for severe group A streptococcal infection and for gas gangrene (an infection caused by C.