M. Xardas. East Stroudsburg State University.
Bristol-Myers Squibb has standard operating procedures in place for both domestic and inter- Consistent guidelines for issuing recalls purchase suprax in india antimicrobial wall panels. Bristol-Myers Squibb has not recalled promoting health equity for vulnerable popula- ners purchase suprax pills in toronto antibiotics zithromax. Bristol-Myers Squibb s donations are mon- a product for a relevant disease in a country in tions cheap suprax 100mg online antibiotics for uti cefdinir, at delivering long-term improvements and itored by the humanitarian aid organisations it scope during the period of analysis. The Foundation s activities for monitoring in-country partners and for send- Limited steps taken to facilitate rational include building health workforce capacity, and ing donation reports to Bristol-Myers Squibb. Bristol-Myers Squibb uses blister packs integrating medical and community-based sup- some regions, Bristol-Myers Squibb conducts to address stability needs, but does not adapt port services. Bristol-Myers Squibb holds 3rd position: it Below average in R&D capacity building. Bristol-Myers Squibb commits to assess- ing needs and building capacity in relevant coun- Half of products available for licensing. In prac- Myers Squibb makes half of its patented port- tice, the company undertakes a relatively small folio of relevant products available for licensing. Bristol- Low transparency on trade agreements and Myers Squibb did not disclose relevant capac- patent statuses. Via the Medicines Patent Pool, it has now agreed licences for hepatitis C medicine daclatasvir (Daklinza ). It moved a high proportion of projects along its pipe- formance incentives linked to its access-related targets, and line, and provides stronger evidence that it implements its the transparency of its stakeholder engagement activities is equitable pricing strategies and monitors prices and mark limited. It has two long-standing donation programmes with wide Compliance, and was found in breach of corruption laws in a reach. Pfzer can imple- strategies to cover more products for diseases ment access strategies for new and exist- in scope, for example, by piloting a variety of Set access provisions for pipeline projects. Pfzer can expand equi- Pfzer can make plans for the accessibility of Hospira, particularly for products that are impor- table pricing to more products for high-burden future products early in the product develop- tant in hospital and emergency situations. Pfzer can develop and disclose Expand anonymity provisions for misconduct products in all low- and middle-income coun- a public position on how it plans to fle for and reporting. This would give drug pro- antee for whistle-blowers to clarify guidance to bility, aligning with demand and the availability of curement agencies and generic medicine man- employees in all countries. In tandem, the chance of misconduct being reported and Pfzer can publish the status of its patents, to tackled. A low proportion of Pfzer s R&D projects Maternal and neonatal target high-priority product gaps with low com- Pfzer s portfolio targets all disease categories and The company has medicines and vaccines in mercial incentive. The company pany performs poorly overall, across all themes Pfzer commits to developing medicines and has a mix of strengths and weaknesses: it is test- of analysis. It was found to have breached vaccines for multiple relevant diseases, and rec- ing a way of optimising access to its established anti-corruption laws in a country in scope ognises the need for collaborative R&D to sup- products portfolio, but the transparency of its (China). It is unclear, few companies with no access-related fnancial Ethical marketing practices lag behind industry however, whether the company s commitments incentives for employees. The company does not objectives and a business rationale: the company any information about its marketing activities in commit to ensuring access-oriented terms considers its access programmes to be impor- countries in scope. Plus, its provisions of ano- (such as supply commitments or afordable pric- tant for building long-term value for investors by nymity for whistle-blowers do not clearly pro- ing strategies) are systematically included in its strengthening reputation and creating opportu- vide guidance to global employees. The Performance management system, but no discloses its policy positions on access to med- company upholds high standards of clinical trial access-related incentives. However, Requests are frst reviewed by an internal com- company does not have dedicated fnancial it does not provide information on the politi- mittee, and any denied or partially approved incentive structures in place to reward employ- cal contributions it makes in countries in scope. Although Pfzer does have a stakeholder Furthermore, Pfzer does not provide informa- bial resistance. Pfzer signed the Declaration engagement strategy, it publishes only general tion about a confict of interest policy for inter- by the Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology information about its related activities. Multiple breaches of criminal, civil law and thereby committing to investing in R&D that codes of conduct. In 2015, Pfzer entered an agreement via evaluated its assets and capabilities for address- improper promotion of a medicine in China. Pfzer has a volunteering programme in which but provides no information about whether employees are able to engage with and sup- these processes have been applied. It is also used by Pfzer to gain insight into local stake- Rises three places in R&D. The project aims to improve the quality of ing, this lack of transparency contributes to its emergency obstetric and neonatal care ser- Pfzer rises one place, remains in middle group. Since 2015, demonstrate that it implements its pricing strat- that sets out its approach to fling for or enforc- Pfzer has partnered with PharmAccess, CarePay egies. It has now also provided details of a global ing patents in low- and middle-income countries. Pfzer (as ViiV Healthcare) showed positive results: M-Tiba has now been ing to more products since 2014. Together, these but limits its support of compulsory licens- dinate technical support, grant funding and cap- strategies reach only some (22%) of the corre- ing to extraordinary circumstances or extreme ital investment for local entrepreneurs creat- sponding priority countries. Pfzer monitors prices via an internal elec- capacity, weaker in pharmacovigilance. The strengthening supply chains, and innovative ini- atively large in scale and scope in Index coun- degree and frequency of monitoring difer per tiatives related to health fnancing. It is engaged in two structured donation country depending on local laws and policies. Pfzer does not lance, and it does not consistently target local provide evidence of having disease-specifc tar- needs. It does not publish its criteria for decid- Strengthening supply chains with a focus on During the period of analysis, Pfzer donated 128 ing where to register products, or whether and identifying falsifed medicines. Pfzer is actively million treatments of azithromycin (Zithromax ) where products are registered. In November 2015, it donated the 500 newest products in a few priority countries (dis- ships and information sharing. For example, to millionth dose in its structured donation ease-specifc sub-sets of countries with a par- help address falsifed medicines moving from programme. Pakistan to the Philippines, the company jointly Most of these products were frst launched 10 to trained authorities from the two countries. Pfzer does not provide evi- Weak performance in strengthening pharma- grammes to Pfzer. Pfzer has donation agree- dence that it adapts its brochures or packaging covigilance systems. For its structured donation pro- ronmental, cultural or demographic needs of but does not demonstrate routine safety label grammes for trachoma, countries are required people living in countries in scope. It has not yet established system, as evidenced by cases of misconduct settled since a structured product donation programme. Takeda has strong R&D commitments related to access capacity building, particularly for R&D and pharmacovigilance. Takeda has a new burdens in low- and middle-income countries can also implement intra-country equitable pric- commitment to considering the use of volun- and plans to ensure afordable pricing. Takeda can strengthen the link Join eforts to combat antimicrobial resist- It can actively seek potential partners (including between access and its corporate strategies to ance.
This approach is somewhat naive order suprax 200mg line virus 2014 usa, because the average seropositivity in a population decreases to zero as the initial passive immunity declines and then increases as people age and are exposed to infectives generic suprax 200mg free shipping antibiotic 7 days to die. The incidence rate at the endemic equilibrium is iese cheapest generic suprax uk bacteria facts, so that ie is the incidence rate constant, which with exponential waiting time implies that the average age of infection (the mean waiting time in S) is A =1/ie =1/[ ( 1)]. Data on average ages of infection and average lifetimes in developed countries have been used to estimate basic reproduction numbers R0 for some viral diseases. Because disease-acquired immunity is only temporary for bacterial diseases such as pertussis (whooping cough) and diphtheria, the formula R0 = =1+L/A cannot be used to estimate R0 for these diseases (see section 8 for estimates of R0 and for pertussis). Herd immunity occurs for a disease if enough people have disease-acquired or vaccination-acquired immunity, so that the introduction of one infective into the pop- ulation does not cause an invasion of the disease. Intuitively, if the contact number is, so that the typical infective has adequate contacts with people during the infectious period, then the replacement number s must be less than 1 so that the disease does not spread. This means that s must be less than 1/, so the immune fraction r must satisfy r>1 1/ =1 1/R0. Using the estimates above for R0, the minimum immune fractions for herd im- munity are 0. Although these values give only crude, ballpark estimates for the vaccination-acquired immunity level in a community required for herd immunity, they are useful for comparing diseases. For example, these numbers suggest that it should be easier to achieve herd immunity for poliomyelitis and smallpox than for measles, mumps, and rubella. This conclusion is justied by the actual eectiveness of vaccina- tion programs in reducing, locally eliminating, and eradicating these diseases (eradi- cation means elimination throughout the world). The information in the next section veries that smallpox has been eradicated worldwide and polio should be eradicated worldwide within a few years, while the diseases of rubella and measles still persist at low levels in the United States and at higher levels in many other countries. For centuries the process of variolation with material from smallpox pustules was used in Africa, China, and India before arriving in Europe and the Americas in the 18th century. Edward Jenner, an English country doctor, observed over 25 years that milkmaids who had been infected with cowpox did not get smallpox. In 1796 he started vaccinating people with cowpox to protect them against smallpox . Two years later, the ndings of the rst vaccine trials were published, and by the early 1800s, the smallpox vaccine was widely available. Smallpox vaccination was used in many countries in the 19th century, but smallpox remained endemic. Smallpox was slowly eliminated from many countries, with the last case in the Americas in 1971. The last case worldwide was in Somalia in 1977, so smallpox has been eradicated throughout the world [23, 77, 168]. Most cases of poliomyelitis are asymptomatic, but a small fraction of cases result in paralysis. In the 1950s in the United States, there were about 60,000 paralytic polio cases per year. In 1955 Jonas Salk developed an injectable polio vaccine from an inactivated polio virus. This vaccine provides protection for the person, but the person can still harbor live viruses in their intestines and can pass them to others. In 1961 Albert Sabin developed an oral polio vaccine from weakened strains of the polio virus. This vaccine provokes a powerful immune response, so the person cannot harbor the wild-type polio viruses, but a very small fraction (about one in 2 million) of those receiving the oral vaccine develop paralytic polio [23, 168]. The Salk vaccine interrupted polio transmission and the Sabin vaccine eliminated polio epidemics in the United States, so there have been no indigenous cases of naturally occurring polio since 1979. In order to eliminate the few cases of vaccine-related paralytic polio each year, the United States now recommends the Salk injectable vaccine for the rst four polio vaccinations, even though it is more expensive . In the Americas, the last case of paralytic polio caused by the wild virus was in Peru in 1991. Most countries are using the live-attenuated Sabin vaccine, because it is inexpensive (8 cents per dose) and can be easily administered into a mouth by an untrained volunteer. Measles is a serious disease of childhood that can lead to complications and death. For example, measles caused about 7,500 deaths in the United States in 1920 and still causes about 1 million deaths worldwide each year [47, 48]. Measles vaccinations are given to children between 6 and 18 months of age, but the optimal age of vaccination for measles seems to vary geographically . But the replacement number R remained above 1, so that smallpox per- sisted in most areas until the mid-20th century. In 1966 smallpox was still endemic in South America, Africa, India, and Indonesia. Because the goal of a rubella vaccination program is to prevent rubella infections in pregnant women, special vaccination strategies such as vaccination of 12 to 14-year-old girls are sometimes used [98, 101]. This 1976 photograph shows schoolchildren in Highland Park, Illinois, lining up for measles vaccinations. Because of a major outbreak in 1989 1991, the United States changed to a two-dose measles vaccination program. The replacement number R now appears to be below 1 throughout the United States, so that measles is no longer considered to be an indigenous disease there. Thus to reach the levels necessary to achieve herd immunity, the vaccinated fractions would have to be at least 0. These fractions suggest that achieving herd immunity would be much harder for measles than for rubella, because the percentages not vaccinated would have to be below 1% for measles and below 9% for rubella. Because vaccinating all but 1% against measles would be dicult to achieve, a two-dose program for measles is an attractive alternative in some countries [50, 98, 99]. In the prevaccine era, every child had measles, so the incidences were approximately equal to the sizes of the birth cohorts. After the measles vaccine was licensed in 1963 in the United States, the reported measles incidence dropped in a few years to around 50,000 cases per year. In 1978 the United States adopted a goal of eliminating measles, and vaccination coverage increased, so that there were fewer than 5,000 reported cases per year between 1981 and 1988. Pediatric epidemiologists at meetings at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta in November 1985 and February 1988 decided to continue the one-dose program for measles vaccinations instead of changing to a more expensive two-dose program. Each year some of the reported cases are imported cases and these imported cases can trigger small outbreaks. The proportion of cases not associated with importation has declined from 85% in 1995, 72% in 1996, 41% in 1997, to 29% in 1998. Analysis of the epidemiologic data for 1998 suggests that measles is no longer an indigenous disease in the United States .
Dissertation or thesis with place of publication not found on title page Campbell E buy discount suprax 200mg on-line antibiotic resistance first discovered. Childbearing and choice: views of young Chinese professional women [dissertation] buy suprax 200mg free shipping antimicrobial resistance and infection control. Family history of breast cancer as a determinant of the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: a nationwide cohort study [dissertation] cheap suprax 200 mg otc bacterial yeast infection. Does the Medicare principal inpatient diagnostic cost group model adequately adjust for selection bias? Embodying erudition: English art, medicine, & antiquarianism in the age of empiricism [dissertation]. Dissertation or thesis with location of a library or other holding institution where the dissertation/thesis may be found Akerstrom B. Supported by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Protocol No. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a part of a dissertation or thesis with the citation to the dissertation or thesis itself, then follow it with the information about the part. Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Dissertations and Theses Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Ichiran-hiyo 3 or [Table 3, ] Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in titles. Part of a dissertation or thesis in a language other than English Location (Pagination) of the Part for a Dissertation or Thesis (required) General Rules for Location (Pagination) Begin location with "p. Box 32 Part paginated separately A part such as an appendix or a group of tables may be given its own pagination and begin anew with page one. Part of a dissertation or thesis in a language other than English Examples of Citations to Parts of Dissertations and Theses 1. The laboratory imagination: experiments in human and social engineering [dissertation]. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, Centre for South Pacific Studies; 1995. Under the microscope: "race," gender, and medical laboratory science in Canada [dissertation]. Appendix, Survey on the career patterns and professional experiences of Canadian medical laboratory technologists; p. Sydney (Australia): University of Sydney, Nutrition Research Foundation; 1996 Oct. Herman Boerhaave and the pedagogical reform of eighteenth-century chemistry [dissertation]. Human factors: aerospace medicine and the origins of manned space flight in the United States [dissertation]. Washington: American University, Faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences; 2003. Descentralizacion y financiacion de la asistencia sanitaria publica en Espana: un estudio desde la perspectiva de la equidad [dissertation]. Descentralizacion y financiacion de la asistencia sanitaria publica en Espana: un estudio desde la perspectiva de la equidad [Decentralization and financing of public health assistance in Spain: a study from the perspective of equality] [dissertation]. Entire Bibliographies Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples B. Parts of Bibliographies Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Bibliographies The general format for a reference to an entire bibliography, including punctuation: - with bibliography in the title: - without bibliography in the title: Bibliographies 387 Examples of Citations to Entire Bibliographies Bibliographies are collections of references to the literature made for a specific purpose, such as to bring together references on a specific subject or by a particular author. The back of the title page, called the verso or copyright page, and the cover of the book are also sources of authoritative information. References to bibliographies in print or in microform (microfilm, microfiche) are included in this chapter. Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Bibliographies Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author/Editor for Bibliographies (required) General Rules for Author/Editor Authors of bibliographies are called compilers List names in the order they appear in the text Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor 388 Citing Medicine Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. Teaching hospital costs: an annotated bibliography of the costs of medical education, patient care, and research at teaching hospitals. Standard citation without the word bibliography in the title (content type added) 3. Box 13 Abbreviations in affiliations Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Box 14 Organizational names for affiliations not in English Give the address of all compilers or only the first compiler. Box 15 Names for cities and countries not in English Use the English form for names of cities and countries whenever possible. Tabak i tabakokurenie: osnovnoi bibliograficheskii ukazatel otechestvennoi i zarubezhnoi literatury. Tabak i tabakokurenie: osnovnoi bibliograficheskii ukazatel otechestvennoi i zarubezhnoi literatury [Tobacco and tobacco smoking: bibliographic index of the Russian and foreign literature]. Chusu shinkeikei senten ijo bunkenshu: kore made no shinpo to kongo no kadai [Bibliographies of congenital central nervous system diseases]. Box 17 Titles in more than one language If a bibliography title is written in several languages, give the title in the first language found on the title page and indicate all languages of publication after the pagination. Infant mortality and health in Latin America: an annotated bibliography of the 1979-82 literature. Bibliography with titles with parallel text in two languages Content Type for Bibliographies (optional) General Rules for Content Type A content type alerts the user that the reference is not to a standard book but to a bibliography Place [bibliography] after the book title if the word does not appear in the title Follow the content type with a period unless the book is in a non-print medium (see Type of Medium below) Specific Rules for Content Type Titles ending in punctuation other than a period Titles not in English Box 20 Titles ending in punctuation other than a period Most bibliography titles end in a period. Box 21 Titles not in English If a translation of a title is given, place it in square brackets 400 Citing Medicine Mori K, compiler. An overview of medical and public health literature addressing literacy issues: an annotated bibliography [microfiche]. Bibliographies 401 If a title ends in another form of punctuation, keep that punctuation and follow [microfiche], [microfilm], or [microcard] with a period A bibliography on human rights in South Africa: is Apartheid gone? Box 24 Titles not in English If a translation of a title is provided, place the translation after the original title and place it in square brackets Chusu shinkeikei senten ijo bunkenshu: kore made no shinpo to kongo no kadai [Bibliographies of congenital central nervous system diseases]. Bibliography in a microform Edition for Bibliographies (required) General Rules for Edition Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title (and Content Type or Type of Medium if present) when a bibliography is published in more than one edition or version Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. Box 27 First editions If a bibliography does not carry any statement of edition, assume it is the first or only edition Use 1st ed. Bibliography with edition Editor and other Secondary Authors for Bibliographies (optional) General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Box 30 Non-English names for secondary authors Translate the word found for editor, translator, illustrator, or other secondary author into English if possible. Bibliography of 1690 citations on autohemotherapy, autogenous vaccines, and the works of E. Infectious diseases in twentieth-century Africa: a bibliography of their distribution and consequences. Bibliography with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity 15.