By F. Hamid. University of Massachusetts at Boston.
Cytotoxic T-cell im- munity to virus-infected non-haematopoietic cells requires presentation of exogenous antigen buy penegra 100 mg without prescription prostate artery embolization. A carbohydrate side chain on hemagglutinins of Hong Kong inuenza viruses inhibits recognition by a monoclonal antibody order 100mg penegra visa prostate 5x. Switches in expres- sion of Plasmodium falciparum var genes correlate with changes in antigenic and cytoadherent phenotypes of infected erythrocytes buy penegra 100mg with visa prostate cancer foods to avoid. Borrelia burgdorferi escape mutants that survive in the presence of antiserum to the OspA vaccine are killed when complement is also present discount penegra 50mg on line prostate cancer risk factors. Evidence of cross-protection within Leptospira interrogans in an experimental model. Role of interspecies transfer of chromosomal genes in the evolution of peni- cillin resistance in pathogenic and commensal Neisseria species. Cross-protection between group A andgroupBstreptococci due to cross- reacting surface proteins. Common mechanism controlling phase and antigenic variation in pathogenic neisseriae. Diversity and evolution of T- cell recpetor variable region genes in mammals and birds. Fifty-million-year-old polymorphism at an immunoglob- ulin variable region gene locus in the rabbit evolutionary lineage. A large and diverse gene family (var)encodes 200 350 kD proteins implicated in the antigenic variation and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. Cooperative inuence of ge- netic polymorphisms on interleukin 6 transcriptional regulation. Toward an integrated genetic epidemiology of parasitic protozoa and other pathogens. Isozyme variability in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease:genetical, taxonomical, and epidemiological sig- nicance. A clonal theory of parasitic pro- tozoa: the population genetic structure of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania and Trypanosomes, and its medical and taxonomic consequences. Natural populations of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, have a complex multiclonal structure. The rate of antigenic variation in y-transmitted and syringe-passaged infections of Trypanosoma brucei. High frequency of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections. Mapping of antigenic changes in the haemagglutinin of Hong Kong inuenza (H3N2) strains using a large panel of monoclonal antibodies. An antigenic map of the haemagglutinin of the inuenza Hong Kong subtype (H3N2), constructed using mouse monoclonal antibod- ies. From absolute to exquisite specicity: reec- tions on the fuzzy nature of species, specicity and antigenic sites. Antigen-specic early primary humoral responses modulate immunodomi- nance of B cell epitopes. Mutagenesis and inducible responses to deoxyribonucleic acid damage in Escherichia coli. Comparative analyses of the specicities of anti-inuenza hemagglutinin antibodies in human sera. Genetic and t- ness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. Antigenic and biological characterization of inuenza virus neuraminidase (N2) with monoclonal an- tibodies. Immunodominance in the T-cell response to multiple non-H-2 histocompatibility antigens. Neutral- ization of poliovirus by polyclonal antibodies requires binding of a single molecule per virion. Structural identication of the antibody-binding sites of Hong Kong inuenza haemagglutinin and their involvement in antigenic variation. Fimbrial phase variation in Bordetella pertussis: anovelmechanism for transcriptional regulation. Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of inuenza virus at 3 resolution. A family of clostridial and streptococcal ligand-binding pro- teins with conserved C-terminal repeat sequences. Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling humoral immunity to exogenous antigens. Reevaluation of amino acid vari- ability of the human immunodeciency virus type 1 gp120 envelope glyco- protein and prediction of newdiscontinuous epitopes. Immunodominance in major histocom- patibility complex class I restricted T lymphocyte responses. Selection of inuenza A adsorptive mutants by growth in the presence of a mixture of monoclonal anti-haemagglutinin antibodies. Antigenic variation in three distinct determinants of an inuenza type A haemagglutinin molecule. Using human immunodeciency virus type 1 sequences to infer historical features of the acquired immune de- ciency syndrome epidemic and human immunodeciency virus evolution. Sequence diversity within the argF, fbp and recA genes of natural isolates of Neisseria meningitidis interspecies recom- bination within the argF gene. University of Geneva Associate Professor of Medicine Geneva, Switzerland Division of Infectious Diseases University of Florida College Reuben Ramphal, M. Echoing the concerns of a 30-day tutorial designed to provide a solid ground- many infectious disease and health policy experts, ing in the principles of clinical infectious diseases. The Chicago Tribune s feature on Unhealthy Hospi- The title has been changed from infectious Diseases in tals warns that the overuse of antibiotics are spawn- 30 Days to Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Short Course; ing drug-resistant germs that are spreading from hos- however the design and intention of our book has not pitals into the community at unprecedented rates. Malaria remains a leading cause of death in time, a seemingly difcult task can be more readily many parts of the world. The book has been shortened to make launched by mailing anthrax spores illustrates the completion within 30 days feasible. This has been critical need for all health providers to recognize the made possible by creating a wide array of tables that manifestations of this nearly forgotten pathogen and summarize the methods of clinical assessment, anti- others that can be used as weapons of mass destruc- infective agent doses, and drug toxicities; facts that tion. As in the last edition, guiding ques- long believed to have non-infectious etiologies are tions begin each chapter to encourage the reader to now conrmed as having microbial origins. The poten- tious diseases have re-emerged as one of the world s tial severity of each disease is assessed to give the inex- top healthcare priorities, and to meet the needs of the perienced clinician a sense of the speed with which 21st Century, health care providers must possess a care must be initiated. When possible simple diagrams summarize tious diseases and provide them with the latest management approaches, as well as principles of approaches managing infections. Morton Swartz who rst inspired want to thank the many medical students at the Uni- my love for Infectious Diseases. I will always be grate- versity of Florida who provided helpful feedback on ful to Drs. This page intentionally left blank Anti-Infective Therapy 1 Time Recommended to complete: 3 days Frederick Southwick, M. How is colonization distinguished from infection, and why is this distinction important? Despite dire warnings that we are approaching the end of They use one or two broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat the antibiotic era, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant all patients with suspected infections. Multiresistant approach to anti-infective therapy and establishment of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas are everyday realities in a xed series of simple rules concerning the use of these many of our hospitals. The press is now warning the lay agents is unwise and has proved harmful to patients. It is no coincidence that the principles of proper anti-infective therapy and use these more primitive life forms have survived for anti-infective agents judiciously. Too often, patients with dynamic and must take into account the ability of these viral infections that do not warrant anti-infective therapy pathogens to adapt to the selective pressures exerted by arrive at the physician s ofce expecting to be treated with the overuse of antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral agents. And health care workers too often prescribe The days of the shotgun approach to infectious diseases antibiotics to fulll those expectations. Only through the judicious use of anti-infective conventional medications, such as anti-inammatory therapy can we hope to slow the arrival of the end of the agents, anti-hypertensive medications, and cardiac drugs. Too often,antibiotics are prescribed to fulll the patient s expectations,rather than to treat a true bacterial infection. Physicians ignore the remarkable adaptability of bacteria, fungi, and viruses at their patient s peril. Anti-infective therapy is dynamic and requires a basic understanding of microbiology. The shotgun approach to infectious diseases must end,or we may truly experience the end of the antibiotic era. To understand why antibiotics must be used judi- ciously, the physician needs to understand how bacte- ria are able to adapt to their environment. Using this mechanism, a ronment, but are of no survival advantage unless the single resistant bacterium can transfer resistance bacteria are placed under selective pressures. Plasmids often carry Natural transformation most commonly occurs in resistance ( R ) genes. The plasmid tance genes in a single event and have been shown encodes for the formation of a pilus on the donor to be responsible for high-level vancomycin resis- bacteria s outer surface. Some preferen- About Antibiotic Resistance tially break down penicillins; others preferentially destroy specic cephalosporins or carbenicillin. Biochemical alterations leading to antibiotic some instances, -lactamase activity is low before the resistance include bacterium is exposed to antibiotics; however, follow- a) degradation or modication of the antibiotic. This gram-negative tration by inhibiting entry or by efflux bacterium may appear sensitive to cephalosporins on pumps. Following cephalosporin treatment, -lactamase activity increases, resistance develops, c) modication of the antibiotic target. Under the selection pressure of antibiotics, the third-generation cephalosporins are not recom- question is not whether, but when resistant mended for serious Enterobacter infections.
Simulated gastrointestinal digestion can be performed with static models where the prod ucts of digestion remain largely immobile and do not mimic physical processes such as shear purchase 100 mg penegra free shipping prostate cancer early detection, mixing discount penegra uk androgen hormone vs enzyme, hydration effective 50 mg penegra prostate diet. Dynamic models can also be used purchase generic penegra from india prostate 5lx softgels, with gradual modifications in pH and enzymes, and removal of the dialyzed components thereby better simulating the actual in vivo situation. All these systems evaluate the aforementioned term bioaccessibili ty, and can be used to establish trends in relative bioaccessibility. The principal requirement for successfully conducting experimental studies of this kind is to achieve conditions which are similar to the in vivo conditions. Interactions with other food components must also be taken into account, since they can influence the efficiency of digestion [12, 17]. A recent overview of the different in vitro digestion models, sample conditions and enzymes used has been published by Hur et al. En lipophilic compounds such as carotenoids and phytosterols, it is necessary to form mixed micelles in the duodenal stage through the action of bile salts, phospholipases and colipase. This allows the compounds to form part of the micelles, where they remain until uptake by the enterocytes . In the case of lycopene, during digestion isomerization of trans-lycopene may occur with the disadvantage that trans-isomers are less soluble in bile acid micelles . Salivary and gastric digestion exert no substantial effect on major phenolic compounds. However, polyphenols are highly sensi tivity to the mild alkaline conditions in pancreatic digestion, and a good proportion of these compounds can be transformed into other unknown and/or undetected forms . Bioactive compounds such as dietary fiber, carotenoids, polyphenols and phytosterols un dergo very limited absorption, and may experience important modifications as a result of actions on the part of the intestinal microbiota. Small intestine in vitro models are devoid of intestinal microbes, and are designed to only replicate digestion and absorption processes; as a result, they are unable to provide information on intestinal fermentation processes. The incorporation of colonic/large intestine fermentation offers a better approximation to the in vivo situation, and allows us to study the effect/interaction between these compounds and the intestinal microbiota. In vitro colonic fermentation models are characterized by the inoculation of single or mul tiple chemostats with fecal microbiota (of rat or human origin) and operated under phys iological temperature, pH and anaerobic conditions. There are two types of colonic fermentation models: batch culture and continuous cultures. Batch culture describes the growth of pure or mixed bacterial suspensions in a carefully selected medium with out the further addition of nutrients in closed systems using sealed bottles or reactors containing suspensions of fecal material under anaerobic conditions. The advantages of batch fermentation are that the technique is inexpensive, easy to set up, and allows large number of substrates of fecal samples to be tested. However, these models have their weakness in microbiological control and the need to be of short duration in or der to avoid the selection of non-representative microbial populations. Several of the pub lications in this field are based on a European interlaboratory study for estimation of the fermentability of dietary fiber in vitro . Continuous cultures allow us to control the rate and composition of nutrient feed, bacterial metabolism and the environmental conditions. These models simulate proximal (single-state models) or proximal, transverse and distal colonic regions (multistage models). Continuous cultures are used for performing long-term studies, and substrate replenishment and toxic product removal are facilitated - thereby mimicking the conditions found in vivo. The most variable factor in these models is the technique used for fecal inoculation. The use of liquid fecal suspension as inoculum, where the bacterial populations are in the free-cell state, pro duces rapid washout of less competitive bacteria; as a result, the operation time is less than four weeks. The formation of fecal beads from the immobilization of fecal microbiota in a porous polysaccharide matrix allows release of the microbiota into the culture medium, with better reproduction of the in vivo flora and longer fermentation times [21, 22]. Artificial continuous models including host functions/human digestive functions have been developed. Models of this kind control peristaltic movement, pH and gastrointestinal secre tions. They incorporate some host functions; however, they do not reproduce immune modulating and neuroendocrine responses. A re maining challenge is the difficulty of establishing a representative human gut microbiota in vi tro. Combined systems that include the fractions obtained from simulated human digestion (gastrointestinal and/or colonic fermentation) and the incorporation of cell culture-based models allow us to evaluate bioaccessibility (estimate the amount of bioactive compounds assimilated from the bioaccessible fraction by cell culture) and to conduct bioactivity stud ies. The Caco-2 cell model is the most widely used and validated intestinal epithelium or hu man colon carcinoma cell model. Although colonic in origin, Caco-2 cells undergo spontaneous differentiation in cell culture to form a monolayer of well-polarized cells at confluence, showing many of the functional and morphological properties of mature human enterocytes (with the formation of microvilli on the brush border membrane, tight intercel lular junctions and the excretion of brush border-associated enzymes) . However it must be mentioned that this cell line differs in some aspects from in vivo conditions. Likewise, the model lacks regula tory control by neuroendocrine cells and through the blood . The combination of in vitro human intesti nal cell models with in vitro digestion models in turn creates an advanced in vitro model sys tem where samples obtained from host responses lacking in in vitro digestion models can be directly applied to monolayer cell models for host function studies . Bioactivity of digested/fermented foods or related target bioactive compounds in cell lines The chemopreventive properties of bioactive compounds have been investigated in cultured cells exposed to individual compounds. However, gut epithelial cells are more likely to be exposed to complex food matrixes containing mixtures of bioactive and antioxidant in vivo compounds . In addition, food matrixes undergo a digestion process that may affect the structure and properties of the bioactive compounds. Therefore, the in vitro protective ef fects of antioxidant bioactive compounds do not necessarily reflect in vivo chemoprotection, which is more likely due to the combined effects of all the bioactive components present in the food . In addition, other mechanisms of chemoprevention could involve protection against genotoxic compounds or reactive oxygen species . It recently has been stated that the measurement of cellular bioactivity of food samples cou pled to in vitro digestion can provide information close to the real-life physiological situation . In this sense, we surveyed more than 30 studies conducted in the past 10 years, involv ing human simulated gastrointestinal digestion and/or colonic fermentation procedures and subsequent bioactivity-guided assays with cell line models. The chemopreventive effect of digested foods or bioactive constituents in cell lines is sum marized in Table 1. From the 22 studies surveyed, and according to the digestion meth od used, it can be seen that most of them involve solubility (n = 17) versus dialysis (n = 5). Furthermore, these compounds are mainly studied in colon-derived cells (as a cancer model when not differentiated, or as an intes tinal epithelial model when differentiated). In addition, polyphenols are stud ied in neuronal cells, liver-derived cells and lymphocytes. Another aspect to bear in mind is the time of cell exposure to the digested food or bioactive con stituents. The range found in these studies is from 30 min to 120 h (this latter time point not being expectable from a physiological standpoint). Bioactive compounds of digested foods present four different but in some cases comple mentary modes of action: (1) inhibition of cholesterol absorption (phytosterols), and (2) antiproliferative, (3) cytoprotective and (4) antiinflammatory activities (polyphenols and general antioxidants). The inhibition of cholesterol absorption has been reported to be mainly due to competi tion between phytosterols and cholesterol for incorporation to the micelles as a previ ous step before absorption by the intestinal epithelial cells . Antiproliferative activity has been linked to cell growth inhibition associated to pol yphenols [28, 32, 36-38] and lycopene , which is mainly regulated by two mech anisms: cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. The cell cycle can be halted at different phases: G /G with down-regulation of cyclin D , S with down-regula0 1 1 tion of cyclins D and B [28, 37] and G /M . Apoptosis induction in turn oc1 1 2 curs as a result of caspase-3 induction and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL . The colonic fermentation procedure used in these as says has always been a batch model, except for one study combining batch and dynamic fer mentation. In turn, when gastrointestinal digestion is involved, dialysis has been the method used. Foods of plant origin rich in fiber, and short chain fatty acids (mainly buty rate) and polyphenols as the target compounds have been used in such studies. The use of colon-derived cell lines is common in these assays, which have been performed using phys 138 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants iologically relevant concentrations and time periods of exposure of samples to cells ranging between 24 h and 72 h. The mechanism of action underlying the treatment of cells with colonic fermented foods or isolated bioactive constituents (see Table 2) mainly comprises antiproliferative activity (i) and/or cytoprotective action (ii). Conclusions and future perspectives From the data here reviewed in disease cell models, it can be concluded that gastrointestinal digestion/colonic fermentation applied to whole foods or isolated bioactive constituents may have potential health benefits derived from cell growth inhibition through the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, cytoprotection against induced oxidative stress, antiin flammatory activity and the reduction of cholesterol absorption. Studies conducted with single bioactive compounds are unrealistic from a nutritional and physiological point of view, since they do not take into account physicochemical changes during digestion and possible synergistic activities. Thus, a combined model of human si mulated digestion including or not including colonic fermentation (depending on the nature of the studied compounds) with cell lines should be carried out if in vitro bioactivity assays with whole foods or bioactive chemopreventive compounds for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases are planned. Although digested/fermented bioactive compounds appear as promising chemopreventive agents, our understanding of the molecular and biochemical pathways behind their mecha nism of action is still limited, and further studies are warranted. Sample Cell treatment (Target Cell type (Concentrations Cellular mechanism References compound/s) and time) Gastrointestinal digestion (dialysis) (Polyphenols) Cell growth inhibition Caco-2 85 to 220 ( M Viability decrease Bermdez-Soto et al. Blackberry (300 M- 24 h) induced oxidative stress (neuroblast polyphenols (2012a) (Rubus sp. Mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive effect of in vitro digested foods or bioactive constituents in cell lines. The in vitro simulation of the conditions of gastrointestinal digestion represents an alterna tive to in vivo studies for evaluating the bioavailability and/or functionality of bioactive com ponents of foods. In vitro studies do not replace in vivo studies; rather, both complement 140 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants each other. Thus, caution is mandatory when attempting to extrapolate observations obtained in vitro in cell line studies to humans. Cell cycle arrest at S phase with/without (human (~50 M total (2010) No apoptosis and resumption of cell cycle iron and/or colon polyphenols)  after digest removal (cytostatic effect) milk carcinoma) 24 h Fruit juices Caco-2 4% (v/v) in Frontela-Saseta et al. Mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive effect of in vitro colonic fermented (in batch) of foods or bioactive constituents in cell lines. Mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive effect of in vitro digested (dialysis) plus colonic fermented (batch) foods or bioactive constituents in cell lines.
The rates of inpatient care and 2000 purchase 50 mg penegra with visa man health care in urdu, the overall rate of inpatient care for the increase steadily with age buy discount penegra 100 mg mens health online dating, more than doubling with treatment of orchitis was relatively stable purchase penegra 100 mg fast delivery mens health 30 minute workout, ranging each decade beyond age 55 generic 50mg penegra free shipping prostate 360. African American men had the highest rates of Inpatient utilization rates for elderly men decreased inpatient utilization. African lowest rates of inpatient care were seen in the West, American men had the highest rates of inpatient while rates were similar in other geographic regions. In those 95 years of age and older, the groups and geographic regions, and in both rural and rates of hospital outpatient visits more than doubled urban hospitals. In the years for which complete data outpatient clinics, physician offces, ambulatory regarding racial/ethnic differences in outpatient surgery centers, and emergency rooms. Each of these hospital utilization were available (1995 and 1998), settings was analyzed separately. Hispanic men had the highest rates of utilization, followed by African American men. The reason for likely refects the higher incidence and prevalence this observed difference is unclear. The reasons for the dramatic increases in 1992 and 1996 are unclear but may be Physician Offces related to coding anomalies. Rates in the most elderly more than 1,290,000 were for a primary diagnosis of cohort (95 and older) were similar to the overall mean. In these years, the observed rates of physician over time and were least pronounced in 1998. This rates of physician offce utilization among the racial/ 196 197 Urologic Diseases in America Urinary Tract Infection in Men 198 199 Urologic Diseases in America Urinary Tract Infection in Men Table 12. Rates were highest in the 2000 was 442 per 100,000, which is similar to the rate Midwest and Northeast and lowest in the South and of 420 per 100,000 observed in 1994. Trends in visits by males with urinary tract infection listed as primary diagnosis by patient age and site of service, 1998. In all years studied, about half of male nursing home The lowest rates were observed in Asian men. Rate of emergency room visits for males with urinary tract infection listed as primary diagnosis by patient race and year. Although these rates of skipped at a much higher rate that year, making its catheter and ostomy use are not dramatic, they are results diffcult to interpret (Table 17). The rates of indwelling catheter and ostomy use Direct Costs in male nursing home residents have remained stable Urinary tract infections in men are associated at 11. Men with pyelonephritis also missed health care expenditures for men and women with more total time from work than did women (11. Fluoroquinolones accounted for a large portion each ambulatory care visit or hospitalization for of these expenditures, in terms of both costs and orchitis, men missed an average of 3. Including expenditures on these excluded medications would increase total outpatient drug spending for urinary tract infections by Diabetes may also be associated with a component approximately 52%, to $146 million. Expenditures for male urinary tract infection (in millions of $) and share of costs, by site of service Year 1994 1996 1998 2000 Totala 811. However, the mean time personal costs for both individual patients and the lost from work by men is somewhat greater. Expenditures for male Medicare benefciaries for the treatment of urinary tract infection (in millions of $), by site of service, 1998 Site of Service Total Annual Expenditures Age < 65 Age 65+ Inpatient 70. Expenditures for male Medicare benefciaries age 65 and over for treatment of urinary tract infection (in millions of $) Year 1992 1995 1998 Total 436. How can health care delivery be optimized to provide high-quality care while simultaneously decreasing costs and complications? Additional research on health services, outcomes, economic impacts, and epidemiological factors is needed to answer these challenging questions. More care is rendered to when irritative urinary tract symptoms occur girls than to boys, at a ratio of 3 4 to 1. Because other factors can cause care increased during the 1990s despite shorter lengths similar symptoms, the presence of symptoms in the of stay. Likewise, the fnancial burden is probably much higher because it presence of leukocytes in the urine is not proof of includes costs for outpatient services, imaging, other infection. Diagnostic methods in which there is a comorbidity that predisposes a vary markedly and depend on presentation, clinical child either to infection or to greater morbidity due suspicion, medical history, and local practice patterns. In the young child, there can years of age), older children (3 to 10), and adolescents be signifcant overlap in the clinical presentations (11 to 17). The rest of the cases are distributed Alternatively, urine can be obtained by sterile primarily among Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella catheterization or suprapubic needle aspiration. Less common However, both of these techniques are invasive and infectious agents include gram-positive cocci, such as frequently met with parental disapproval. Viral infections are under-recognized because obtained, urine is examined with a reagent dipstick of diffculties with culture and identifcation, but for the presence of nitrates and leukocyte esterase. The course is typically is used to evaluate for the presence of obstruction characterized by discomfort and irritative voiding or stones, which can greatly increase the severity symptoms with rapid resolution following the and sequelae of infection. The primary appearance of the kidney can also be altered by the risk is that of recurrence or persistence. Ultrasound can assist constipation or voiding dysfunction are particularly in localizing the site of infection in the presence of prone to recurrence; 10% of these children develop renal abscess, parenchymal edema (lobar nephronia), a rapid recurrence following the completion of a or pyonephrosis. Renal scarring can lead confrming acute pyelonephritis and later for assessing to renal insuffciency and subsequent hypertension. Bacterial virulence it is nearly universally recommended for identifying factors include adhesins, K-antigen, hemosysins, vesicoureteral refux or other anatomic abnormalities and colicin. Bacterial colonization of the perineum that may contribute to future infection risk. Adhesins are specialized structures that enable the bacteria to adhere to specifc receptors on the uroepithelium. Such attachment leads to ascension into the urinary tract and promotes tissue invasion, 216 217 Urologic Diseases in America Urinary Tract Infection in Children infammation, and tissue injury. Adhesins may also The exact mechanism by which constipation exerts help promote intestinal carriage of more virulent its infuence on voiding is unclear, but it frequently bacteria, leading to perineal colonization. The relatively short length of the female urethra Successful host defense depends on the proper has traditionally been blamed for the increased risk of functioning of the urinary system. In the past, there was concern that a tight of the urinary tract is the frequent and complete ring narrowed the urethra, often prompting urethral emptying of urine in a low-pressure environment. Current evidence indicates This effectively fushes out bacteria prior to their that urethral constriction is not a reproducible establishment of clinical infection. It is anatomy (the short urethra in females and the prepuce clear that male infants with an intact prepuce are at in males). Colonization of bacteria on the inner children presenting with febrile infections. Present preputial mucosa occurs, but it is not clear whether in approximately 1% of the asymptomatic population this is the etiology of infection (8). Refux also bypasses one of the host defense risk of urinary infection during their frst 6 months mechanisms against upper tract invasion by allowing compared with circumcised boys, in addition to a less virulent strains of bacteria to reach the kidney. A fuller discussion but important host risk factor that can contribute of this controversial subject is beyond the scope of this to increased morbidity, persistence, and recurrence. Dysfunctional infection is based on symptoms, positive culture, or voiding refers to a learned pattern of behavior both; how accurate the method of specimen collection surrounding voiding that frequently begins with is; how accurate the history is, especially in young voluntary holding. Alternatively, it can present as an atonic associated with fever; and what the baseline rate of bladder with infrequent voiding and high post-void circumcision is in the population. Frequently, dysfunctional year of life (boys and girls), cumulative incidence at voiding can be compounded by chronic constipation. Age differences were most prominent among Girls have an increased risk of febrile infection patients requiring hospitalization. The rate of in the frst year of life, then the risk steadily declines inpatient hospital stays was 6. Their risk of nonfebrile commercially insured infants than the rate among infections is higher during childhood than during older children, and 11 times higher than the rate infancy. It also refects more aggressive treatment patterns in the very young that Inpatient Care tend to include parental antimicrobials. Despite recent support for outpatient treatment centers contributed minimally, especially in the of pediatric pyelonephritis (13), these data indicate Medicaid population. From 1996 onward, the hospitalization rate centers more often than did children with commercial was at least 2. The female-to-male That children with Medicaid visited emergency ratio was at least 5:1 for each year analyzed. Urinary tract infections listed as primary diagnosis among children having commercial health insurance (left) and Medicaid (right) by visit setting and gender. The female-to- counts were low for this diagnosis in children, these male ratio for physicians offce visits by commercially counts and rates were derived by frst collapsing data insured children rose from 4. Circumcision is not a covered diagnosis in children, these counts and rates were service, and families insured through Medicaid may derived by frst collapsing data from the even years in not be able to afford to pay for it out-of-pocket; the 1994 2000 and then dividing by 4. In the offce setting, adolescents Isolated orchitis is extremely rare in the had lower visit rates than did either infants or older prepubertal male and in most cases is due to the children, regardless of insurance status (Tables 4 and extension of acute epididymitis into epididymo- 5). Most cases occur in adolescents and present 222 223 Urologic Diseases in America Urinary Tract Infection in Children Table 6. The primary differential diagnosis is usage in adolescents may represent an appropriate torsion of the testis or appendix testis.
The following briefly discuss some results of studies using antioxidants from fruits and veg etables for the treatment of breast cancer quality penegra 50 mg prostate 45 grams. Another recent study  buy penegra cheap online prostate 5lx amazon, focused on the action of terpenes located in the skin of the olives suggests that they may serve as natural potential protective against breast cancer cheap 100mg penegra with visa mens health cover. The triter penes were isolated in significant quantities from the pulp of the olive oil and can act pro phylactically and therapeutically buy penegra paypal prostate cancer 4th stage prognosis. Moreover, in mice treated with apigenin was observed a decrease of the tumor when compared with the group of mice used as a blank. Yet unknown mechanism of action of apigenin chemical, however, although the study was conducted in mice, is very promis ing for future treatment of breast cancer. Which are still unknown factors that cause this type of cancer, the disease also takes years in some cases to express symptoms, making it necessary for men to undergo regular medical examinations to detect early. One form of treatment of prostate cancer is surgery, whereby the prostate is removed, but this is a procedure which results in urinary incontinence and impotence, which in some cases is permanent. Prevention through diet prostate cancer has increased because it is recognized as a way to combat this disease [18, 19]. Among the foods that are recommended for the prevention of prostate cancer are generally fruits and vegetables due to its high content of antioxidants. Fruits like pomegranate containing metabolites such as polyphenols and delphinidin uroliti na A and B chloride, kaempferol, and punicic acid are considered biologically active against prostate cancer [20, 21]. These studies confirm the effectiveness of the cutter to inhibit growth of cancer cells. The apple is considered the quintessential fruit of health, its daily intake is associated with low risk of chronic diseases and cancer, particularly prostate and colon [24-26]. The block contains a variety of compounds polyphenolic that are responsible for their biological activi ty among these compounds, studies were performed with quercetin which has proven effec tive as an inhibitor in vitro cell growth of prostate cancer [23, 24]. Another study showed that the antioxidant activity of apples is correlated  with the total concentration of phe nolic compounds present in it clear that this concentration varies according to growing re gion, and other growth period factors [28-30]. It has been reported that tomato consumption reduces the occurrence of prostate cancer [33-35]. Another study used extracts of potato species Solanum jamesii to test their cytotoxic activity toward antiproliferatva and prostate cancer cells and colon in vitro. Fractions were also tested extract containing anthocyanin and it showed the same activity as the full extract . Cervical cancer It is a type of cancer that has one of the top female deaths worldwide . Its main cause is due to Human Papilloma Virus, which is a group of more than 150 types of viruses and is transmitted by sexual contact . To the treatment of cervical cancer, chemotherapy and ra diation therapy is performed. As prevention against this type of cancer was recommended not realize sexual contact with infected persons. Another recommendation to prevent this cancer is to stimulate the immune system by eat ing foods rich in antioxidants, because if the body is weakened, the virus is an opportunity to attack and develop cancer . Have also been performed in vitro studies to observe foods as antioxidants influence on the growth of cervical cancer cells . One study was carried out with extracts of different types of berries and tested for anti-proliferative activity on HeLa cells (cervical carcinoma). The results show that extracts from blueberry and pome granate have little effect inhibiting the growth of HeLa cells. The most effective extracts with increasing concentration were: strawberry extract, arctic bramble, lingonberry and cloudber ry. It has also been reported  that glycoalkaloids present in commercial potatoes inhibit the growth of different types of cancer cell lines, including HeLa cervical cancer cells. In therapy of cancer selenium doses is 4000 g in continuous infusion of 1000 g/9 days, to tal: 13 mg  (Forceville et al, 2007), i. Diabetes Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with defects in secretion and insulin action . Type 1 diabetes also known as insulin dependent and type 2 diabetes called non-insulin de pendent. Both conditions are associated with the formation of free radicals that cause oxida tive stress and disease manifestation. Because diabetes is a disease of oxidative stress, it is expected that the antioxidants in fruits, vegetables and plants to help combat it. Several studies report that a proper diet that includes antioxidants is important to reduce the risk of diabetes. These substances exert their activity by inhibiting the action of R-amylase enzyme. Amylase is an enzyme produced in the pancreas and salivary glands; their function is to help the digestion of carbohydrates . Among the flavonoids that can inhibit R-amylase are the quercetin, myricetin, epigallo catechin gallate, and cyanidin. Thanks to these findings, it has been proposed the use of some natural metabolites present in these fruits for the control of hyperglycemia following ingestion of food. The advantage of these natural metabolites is that its use can avoid the side effects that occur when drugs are used for this purpose [55, 56]. What makes the resveratrol is to activate a protein called sirtuin which is expressed in parts of the brain that govern the metabolism of glucose. Much remains to be investigated but it is certainly likely that the intake of red wine under medical super vision can help control diabetes. Also been studied antioxidants in plants and animals such as the following examples show. A group of researchers at the University of Jaen in Spain isolated a compound called Cin namtannin B-1 of the laurel, which has antioxidant properties that can eliminate free radi cals that cause diseases such as diabetes. The university has signed an agreement with a pharmaceutical for the distribution of this antioxidant . Lipoic acid, also known as alpha lipoic acid or thioctic acid, is produced in small quantities our bodies, it participates in the metabolism significantly. Can also be found in foods like red meat, yeast and some vegetables such as spinach, broccoli. Among the many properties that are attributed to reduction of varicose veins, skin moisture, enhances energy levels in the body, cancer protection among others. Also attributed the reduction in blood glucose levels for type 2 diabetes and help combat the discomforts caused by peripheral neuropathy, and therefore coupled with the effects men tioned above, this antioxidant is ideal for diabetics [62-67]. Currently sold in different forms under different names, but the diabetic patient can take doses of lipoic acid consuming identified through the diet. No indication that lipoic acid has contraindications, although high doses can cause episodes of hypoglycemia . Arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries due to fat accumulation; this may lead to a heart attack that can end life . Antioxidants play an important role in preventing this disease, it is known that there is a relationship between red wine consumption and the low incidence of cardiovascular dis ease; this is due to the action of the antioxidants present in grapes. Studies with another fruits can be deter mining its effectiveness in the prevention of arteriosclerosis. Another fruit that has been investigated for its antioxidant and cardiovascular protec tive effects are blueberries. Studies realized in Arkansas State University, evaluated the effect on two groups of mice for twenty weeks. The researchers suggest incorporating blueberries to the diet to improve cardiovascular health and recommended as the ideal fruit for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It is known that fruits such as cranberries have high antioxidant levels and tested their effec tiveness in promoting cardiovascular health [73-75]. Work is to show whether supplementation based cranberry juice may have the same antioxidant capacity and the same protective benefit as red wine, if so would avoid alcohol. In another study conducted at the University of Buffalo studied the effect of resveratrol as an antioxidant and its possible use in treating atherosclerosis. In this investigation were not used fruits or vegetables, but was used an extract of the plant. The extract containing resver 366 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants atrol was administered at doses of 40 mg daily to a group of 10 people, another group of 10 people also served as a target. During the six weeks of the study, blood tests were per formed on the results; researchers concluded that Polygonum cuspidatum extract has a ther apeutic effect against oxidative stress. Obesity and metabolic syndrome The metabolic syndrome has been identified as a target for dietary therapies to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the role of diet in the etiology of the metabolic syn drome is poorly understood. The metabolic syndrome consists of a constellation of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The etiology of this syn drome is largely unknown but presumably represents a complex interaction between genet ic, metabolic, and environmental factors including diet [77-79]. The diet designed to increase consump tion of foods rich in phytochemicals, antioxidants, -linolenic acid, and fiber prevent Metabolic Syndrome. One of the mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of such a diet may be through reduction of the low-grade inflammatory state associated with the met abolic syndrome. If antioxidants play a protective role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, understanding the physiological status of antioxidant concentrations among people at high risk for developing these conditions, such as people with the metabolic syndrome, is of interest. Because the prevalence of obesity, which is associated with decreased concentrations of antioxidants , is high among peo ple with the metabolic syndrome, they are probably more likely to have low antioxidant concentrations.
Topical duce a sympathetic paralysis buy generic penegra 50mg on line prostate cancer hormone therapy side effects, which may be more difcult application of warm compresses may help reduce soft tis- to treat and resolve penegra 100mg with amex prostate oncology quizzes. Botulism For auriculopalpebral nerve injury caused by a stan- Etiology chion discount penegra 50 mg amex man health book, warm compresses and topical antiinammatory Signs of botulism in cattle usually follow the ingestion of drugs may sufce for therapy buy cheap penegra 50 mg online man health zinc. The corneas need to be toxin produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum. These neurotoxins that result in the clinical disease quicken resolution of the problem. One cause of such infection in the eastern United States, whereas type A is much more is the trauma secondary to excessively vigorous use of a common west of the Rocky Mountains. Treatment of the infection may found in the intestinal tract of animals and birds. Similarly phos- phorous deciency may create pica in cattle, so decaying carcasses are attractive food sources for these cattle. This scenario has led to botulism in South African cattle, and the disease has been called lamziekte. Ingestion of preformed toxin followed by intestinal absorption is the most common route of entry, but oc- casional cases of toxicoinfectious botulism and wound botulism may be encountered. Wound botulism similar to tetanus implies that a She was one of several that became affected when a new necrotic wound that provides an anaerobic environ- grass silage that had not been properly fermented was ment may allow the vegetative growth of C. The cow was recumbent for nearly 30 days but re- spores and subsequent absorption of the toxin into the covered with supportive care. However, ingestion of pre- formed toxin in feedstuffs such as silages and brewer s grains contaminated with C. Ptosis and a mild portantly, its toxin has caused most outbreaks of this mydriasis with slower than normal pupillary response to disease in cattle. Improperly ensiled forages that never direct light have been detected in some patients. Unfortunately this amount is slightly less sensitive to botulinum toxin than horses. Cattle that Clinical signs occur within 1 to 7 days of ingestion of show signs of botulism but can still rise from recum- the toxin. Anorexia and weakness predominate as clini- bency, eat, and drink have a much better chance of cal signs of botulism. Unfortu- continually chew the same bite of food without swal- nately the amount of toxin necessary to cause toxicosis lowing it. Animals that retain the ability to drink and in animals is often very small and may be difcult to eat albeit reduced transiently may have a better detect. Few laboratories preserved better in cattle than horses, the tongue may provide this service, and the attending veterinarian will protrude from the mouth in severe cases, and salivation need to contact diagnostic laboratories if conrmation is common. Ruminal contractions are weak or absent, and feces may vary from excessively dry (lack of water intake, hy- Treatment and Prevention pocalcemia) to diarrhea (perhaps associated with feed Treatment is largely supportive because toxin already materials that contained toxin). Reported heart rates in xed to neuromuscular receptors is irreversibly bound affected cattle usually are normal or elevated, although until natural deterioration occurs. Polyva- Urine dribbling may be observed, resulting from atonic lent antitoxins for C. If available and indicated based on geographic A form of inherited congenital myotonia has been recog- probability of toxin type (type B in the eastern United nized in a breed of buffalo cattle in Brazil that is similar States), they may be of use as initial treatment. This If ingestion of feedstuffs containing toxin is the sus- is a disorder of the muscle cell membrane that permits pected source, cathartics and oral medication to prevent episodes of continuous contraction of muscle cells with- further absorption are indicated. The limb extensor muscles are primarily volume saline cathartics administered through a stom- affected. The myotonic episodes can be elicited by sud- ach tube may be helpful in this regard. Affected cattle will suddenly develop products should be avoided because they may further extensor rigidity of their limbs and often fall onto their neuromuscular weakness. Cholinergic drugs have been used short period in which they are refractory to further epi- but are of little clinical use, may serve to excite the ani- sodes. Diagnosis can be supported by electromyographic mal, and subsequently contribute to respiratory failure. In goats a chloride channel defect in the muscle Obviously, feeding of forage or water suspected to be cell membrane has been described. In individuals suspected of having wound origin botu- lism or toxicoinfectious botulism, crystalline penicillin, Metabolic Disorders drainage and aeration of wounds, and supportive therapy are indicated. Diffuse neuromuscular signs will occur acutely in hypo- Dehydrated patients or those that cannot eat or drink kalemic, hypocalcemic, and/or hypomagnesemic cattle. The clinical signs of severe neuromuscular paresis three times at 2-week intervals. Affected cattle generally have plasma po- contaminated forage to be fed rather than destroyed tassium levels 2. These authors is generally unsuccessful in larger cattle because of sec- also recommended not using the manure from affected ondary muscle damage from being down. Potassium or recovering cattle for fertilization of gardens or elds chloride ( to 1 lb) given via oral-rumen tube is the best that will contain forage crops for at least 8 weeks. Sporadic cases of hypomagnesemia occur in Vaccination of affected animals with toxoid is indi- dairy cattle, and the reason for these is rarely proven. Soil containing livestock feces is more likely to har- continuous contraction of these muscles, which is inter- bor C. Of Clinical signs may be mild or severe, with rapid progres- these, tetanolysin seems to contribute to pathogenicity of sion indicating a guarded prognosis. A sawhorse stance is typical because of extensor lute anaerobic environments, and other microbial muscle rigidity and tetany in the major limb muscles. Bloat probably results from heavy purulence in a wound, and mixed infections that failure of eructation because the complex act of eructa- produce many exotoxins and endotoxin that damage tion requires interaction of striated muscles in the larynx, adjacent tissue are high risks for C. The muscles of lesions in the vulva or vagina secondary to dystocia, and mastication are involved and give rise to the layperson s severe metritis in recently calved cattle. Passive prolapse of the casionally result in tetanus, thereby explaining sporadic nictitans results from the disinhibited retractor oculi cases without obvious wounds or infection sites. Prolapse of the nictitans and other clinical signs an attractive theory, albeit difcult to prove. The toxin is thought to bind with the axons tetanus but may be more subtle in milder cases. On many of alpha motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction occasions, veterinarians have been embarrassed by misdi- and pass retrograde through the axon until reaching the agnosing tetanus; the usual mistake is to concentrate on neuronal cell body in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The toxin inhibits gly- classical signs described above, there are two physical cine release from the Renshaw cells, which normally lim- examination techniques that will help the physician its the duration and intensity of motor neuron discharge. Severely affected animals or cattle with rapidly progressive signs may be unable to rise, continue to struggle to rise, and eventu- ally die from respiratory failure as the muscles of respiration suffer from tetany during exertion. Regard- ing recumbency in tetanus patients, cattle are more fortunate than horses because they tend to lie in ster- nal recumbency, whereas horses prefer to lie in lateral recumbency. Musculoskeletal temporary indwelling ruminal trocar has been placed injuries such as fractures of the femur and hip luxations because of chronic bloat. A rumen stula is a more use- are another common cause of demise of tetanus pa- ful technique than trocarization for treatment of bovine tients. These signs disappear after death in tetanus patients, so conrmation of premortem tetanus is based on ruling out other diseases, hoping to nd the site of growth of C. Similarly if the site of infection is found in a patient showing signs of tetanus, pus or necrotic tissue from the site may be examined microscopically or cultured to conrm C. Treatment Tetanus is one of the most frustrating diseases to diagnose in any species because no method exists for the clinician to offer an accurate prognosis for tetanus patients. Empathy for the patient is essential because the disease causes exquisite pain, and clinical therapeutic exuberance in neophyte clinicians often results in patient suffering rather than cure. If the wound or site of infection can be Passive protrusion of the nictitans and anxious expres- identied readily, it should be cleaned, dbrided, and sion with ears retracted caudally in a tetanus patient. The wound should be aerated as well as possible to minimize further vegetative growth and toxin produc- 2. Look at the animal s face, and if necessary attempt tion in an anaerobic environment. Tetanus antitoxin to open the mouth should be administered at least once and may be re- These two procedures may sound simple, but they peated at 12-hour intervals for three or four total treat- are frequently not performed, especially on stanchioned ments in cases where the site of infection is not appar- cattle. Tetanus antitoxin obviously cannot counteract Depending on the severity of clinical signs and po- toxin already bound to receptors but may bind any cir- tential treatment for the site of infection, affected cattle culating toxin or toxin not yet xed. We usually administer 15,000 U port aids such as slings are worthless in this situation be- once or twice as initial therapy. In calves or extremely valuable cows, crystal- Prevention line penicillin administered through a jugular catheter Although cattle are thought to be less susceptible to at the same dose but four times daily will provide less tetanus than horses and other farm animals, there is no discomfort for the patient. Therefore in certain geographic areas with a high incidence of cotton should be packed into the patient s external ear tetanus can be vaccinated easily and inexpensively with canals to mufe sound stimuli; the animal should be kept tetanus toxoid twice the rst year and once yearly there- by itself in a darkened box stall in as quiet a location as after. All treatments should be performed by a single with clinical signs of tetanus may or may not be ade- concerned caretaker, and footing and bedding in the stall quate to create humoral antibodies in the patient. Tranquil- Therefore cattle affected with tetanus should be vacci- ization is very helpful in most cases. Acepromazine is nated twice at 2- to 4-week intervals to ensure future used for this purpose, and the dosage should be adjusted protection against the disease. Seda- tion helps the animal remain calm, and most cows con- An inherited congenital tetany occurs in newborn polled tinue to be able to rise from sternal recumbency at this Hereford calves. Milking machines should be brought to the cow, myoclonus and hereditary neuraxial edema. The clinical sign exhibited is tetany, may be indicated at the veterinarian s discretion. Myoclonus is a sudden contraction of formed in tetanus patients that have sufcient free-gas muscles followed by immediate relaxation. These calves have an abnor- patient, use analgesics, and following standard surgical mality in the gene responsible for the normal develop- preparation of the left paralumbar fossa and with the ment of the glycine receptors on neuronal cell membranes use of local anesthesia surgically create a ruminal stula (see video clip 56).
The presentation of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery is quite different generic 50 mg penegra fast delivery prostate 81. Symptoms typically develop within the first 2 3 months of age order penegra toronto androgen hormone meaning, corresponding with the normal fall in pulmonary vascular resistance and resul- tant reversal of flow from the left coronary into the pulmonary artery penegra 100mg amex prostate ultrasound cpt code. They may also be noted to have transient respira- tory distress order penegra no prescription prostate cancer detection, appear pale and sweaty, and may appear syncopal. It is thought that these symptoms are related to myocardial ischemia and associated angina. A small number of individuals improve with time and escape diagnosis as an infant. They may have transient shortness of breath and chest pain with exercise and continue to be at risk for sudden death. Chest Radiography Plain film X-rays are not useful in the diagnosis of an anomalous coronary artery arising from the wrong aortic sinus. Patients with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery have X-ray findings consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy, 26 Congenital Abnormalities of Coronary Arteries 309 namely, cardiomegaly with left atrial and ventricular enlargement, and associated pulmonary edema. Echocardiography Echocardiography is the mainstay for the diagnosis of anomalous coronary arteries. An echocardiogram is recommended for all patients who present with syncope or chest pain associated with exercise to evaluate for the possibility of anomalous coronary arteries, as well as other cardiac abnormalities. It is important that Doppler color flow interrogation of the coronary arteries also be performed. Color flow can help to demonstrate the origins of the coronary arteries from the aortic sinuses and can also help to show a coronary artery passing between the two great vessels. The coronary flow can also be identified by Doppler color flow in the pul- monary artery as an abnormal diastolic flow signal at the point where the anoma- lous coronary artery enters. Echocardiography can also demonstrate other important findings in patients with anomalous coronary arteries, including ventricular size and function, the presence of atrioventricular valve insufficiency, and the presence of other congenital heart disease. Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is typically only used in the diagnosis of anomalous coro- nary artery when other imaging modalities are inconclusive. Coronary angiography may help in demonstrating the anomalous origin of a coronary artery, but proving 310 R. Hemodynamic evaluation performed at cardiac catheterization can be useful in the management of certain patients with anomalous coronary arteries to evaluate cardiac output, filling pres- sures, and measurement of shunts, but in most cases these measurement are not necessary. Treatment/Management The treatment of an anomalous coronary passing between the great vessels or of anomalous origin of the left coronary from the pulmonary artery is predominately surgical. In the case of an anomalous coronary passing between the great vessels, surgical reimplantation of the abnormal coronary into the correct sinus can some- times be performed if the anomalous coronary artery arises as a separate origin from the abnormal sinus. In cases where a portion of the anomalous coronary courses in the wall of the aorta, the coronary may be unroofed such that the intra- mural portion of the coronary is opened to the lumen of the aorta so as to widen the origin and minimize tension or compression effects that may result from the coro- nary passing between the two great vessels. In the case of anomalous left coronary from the pulmonary artery, several surgical approaches have been used historically. If adequate collaterals have formed, one straightforward approach is to ligate the anomalous origin from the pulmonary artery to eliminate the pulmonary coronary steal. This procedure has also been performed in association with a bypass graft to augment coronary flow if collaterals were not sufficient. Currently, however, the most accepted approach is direct excision and reim- plantation of the anomalous coronary from the pulmonary artery into the aorta. In these cases, an aortopulmonary window can be created and a baffle placed in the pulmonary artery to tunnel coronary flow from the aorta (Takeuchi procedure). It is generally accepted that surgical intervention should be undertaken in these patients at the time of presentation. Patients with significant cardiac dysfunction or heart failure may require acute medical management of these symptoms before proceeding to surgery. Long-Term Follow-Up and Prognosis It remains unclear as to what extent surgical intervention in cases of anomalous coronary passing between the great vessels minimizes the risk of sudden death. It is widely felt, though, that surgical intervention should be undertaken in any patient with the finding of an anomalous left coronary between the great vessels. The finding of an anomalous right coronary passing between the great vessels is more controversial, but surgical intervention is frequently undertaken, particularly in patients who are symptomatic in any way. Patients with a coronary arising from the pulmonary artery generally have significant improvement in their ventricular 26 Congenital Abnormalities of Coronary Arteries 311 function following coronary reimplantation, with some eventually returning to normal myocardial function. However, patients with significant myocardial injury at presentation often continue to have cardiac dysfunction and remain at increased risk for cardiac issues, including sudden death. Following surgical intervention for anomalous coronary arteries, some may benefit from medical therapy to improve cardiac function, such as diuretics and afterload-reducing agents. Patients undergoing surgical intervention should have long-term follow-up to evaluate cardiac function and rhythm, and potential myocardial perfusion abnor- malities. They typically undergo stress testing when old enough, and may have coronary angiography performed in the first decade to evaluate for coronary steno- sis. Patients who experience myocardial infarction are at increased risk for lethal arrhythmias and may be candidates for automatic implanted cardiac defibrillators. The coach and the team trainer immediately evaluate the teenager and find him to be unresponsive and with short gasping breaths. On arrival to the field, paramedics find that the young man is in ventricular fibrillation. He is successfully defibrillated and following resumption of normal sinus rhythm, the patient is intubated and is then transported to the local emergency room. When the young man s father arrives at the hospital, he tells the doctors that his son has commented on a couple of episodes of chest pain and dizziness while playing soccer in the past, but that the symptoms had always gone away after he stopped playing. Intubated, on mechanical ventilation as well as inotropic and extracorporeal support, but is well perfused. On auscultation, a 3/6 systolic regurgitant murmur is heard at the apex and a gallop rhythm is present. There are also inverted T-waves in the left precordial leads, but ventricular voltages are normal. Sudden collapse in an otherwise healthy teenager is most likely due to a primary cardiac arrest. If there were history of trauma immediately preceding the arrest, commotio cordis would also be considered. The finding on history that the patient had episodes of chest pain and dizziness suggests some sort of an ischemic process, which makes an anomalous coro- nary artery more likely in this case. Basic labs would rule out an electrolyte abnormality, and the negative toxicology screen is helpful to rule out drugs of abuse (e. However, if there were serious concern for substance abuse, specific test would have to be done. Regardless, an echocardiogram is indicated to assess the coronaries and to evaluate for any other congenital defect. Detailed echocardiogram demonstrates a mildly dilated left ventricle that has moderately decreased function, most notably in the anterior left ventricular free wall and anterior ventricular septum. There is no congenital heart disease, but mod- erate mitral valve insufficiency is present. He has suffered a myocardial infarction of the left ventricular wall and anterior septum. Following the operation, he is able to be weaned from extra- corporeal support, but remains with diminished left ventricular function and mitral insufficiency for which he is treated with diuretics and afterload-reducing agents. After recuperation, the patient will be followed closely for the evaluation of his cardiac function and rhythm status. A 10-week-old female infant is seen in the emergency room because of poor feeding and lethargy. Upon questioning, her mother reports several episodes of uncontrollable crying during feeds. She also notes that her baby looks somewhat gray and sweaty during these episodes. She has had a previous child who had significant reflux, but does not think that this is the same thing. The baby was born full term with no perinatal complications and had been well until about 1 week ago. Cardiac evalua- tion shows a regular rate and rhythm with a normal S1 and prominent but normally split S2. A 3/6 systolic regurgitant murmur is heard at the apex, and a gallop rhythm is present. Her liver edge is palpable at her umbilicus and she has 1+ to 2+ pulses in all extremities. Chest X-ray demonstrates a severely enlarged cardiac silhouette and increased interstitial markings. This patient presents with signs and symptoms of conges- tive heart failure at 7 weeks. Additionally, this patient could have a dilated cardiomyopathy due to a number of etiologies, such as viral myo- carditis or metabolic abnormality. Because her blood pressure is equal in both arms, coarctation is unlikely, and without a diastolic murmur, aortic regurgitation is also unlikely. However, it is difficult to narrow the differential diagnosis much further based on the initial studies. Therefore, an echocardiogram must be done to evaluate this patient s heart failure. The echocardiogram demonstrates a severely dilated and poorly functioning left ventricle, but no congenital heart disease. There is also severe mitral valve insuffi- ciency and moderate left atrial enlargement. Examination of the coronary arteries reveals that the left coronary artery is originating from the proximal main pulmo- nary artery.