By V. Hanson. East-West University.
There is no doubt that the application of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year buy zestoretic 17.5mg with mastercard blood pressure chart heart foundation. On the other hand discount zestoretic 17.5 mg without a prescription arterial network, the ability of ionizing radiation to penetrate tissues and to kill and transform tissue cells can make it hazardous to health buy discount zestoretic 17.5 mg online blood pressure goes up when standing. Employing radiation in medicine, therefore, has to carefully balance the benefits by enhancing human health and welfare, and the risk related to the overall radiation exposure of people in medical practices which should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, in order to minimize its deleterious effects. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection, there is considerable scope for dose reduction in diagnostic radiology and simple, low cost measures are available for reducing doses without loss of diagnostic information. At the same time, while new diagnostic equipment and techniques are bringing new benefits, some of the procedures involve the delivery of relatively high radiation doses to patients. While important work has been devoted to optimization over the past decades, less effort has been applied with respect to justification. Thus, recent efforts to strengthen the principle of justification and to discuss its implementation in clinical practice are, in particular, important and promising. There are two main purposes of this conference: first, to foster information exchange in the area of patient protection; second, to formulate recommendations and findings regarding further international cooperation in this area. The input will come from the large number of submitted papers, several topical sessions and round tables, and, more importantly, from you — the audience — as there will be enough time for discussion during this conference. I would also like to express my gratitude to the Government of Germany and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety for their hospitality, and the organizing committee for all its hard work. Last but not least, I am particularly grateful to the members of the Programme Committee and its Chair; without their continuous engagement, this ambitious conference programme could not have been developed. The culture of an organization reflects its shared attitudes, values, goals and practices, and a safety culture requires that each employee accepts responsibility for improving patient and personnel safety, and that responsibility is shared and supported by the organization’s administration. There are seven ingredients of a safety culture: leadership, evidence based practice, teamwork, accountability, communication, continuous learning and justice. These ingredients require thoughtful integration within an organizational strategy if they are to contribute collectively to improved safety of patients and personnel. In 1999, the United States National Academy of Sciences issued a landmark publication on patient safety entitled To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System . The publication stated that: “The healthcare organization must develop a culture of safety such that an organization’s design, process and workforce are focused on a clear goal — dramatic improvement in the reliability and safety of the care process. With regard to a health care organization, the questions are: (i) What are the drivers of a patient centered safety culture? These drivers are: (i) leadership; (ii) evidence based practice; (iii) teamwork; (iv) accountability; (v) communication; (vi) continuous learning; and (vii) justice. Leadership is a critical element in any safety programme, and it must be both a top-down process, with committed organizational leaders, and a bottom-up process involving every member of the health care team. Leadership is not a delegable function, and must engage the interest and support of the administration, board of directors and others at the top of the organizational pyramid. In addition, it requires all members of the health care team to work together in an atmosphere of respect, support and appreciation. Critical steps in instilling a safety culture within a health care organization include: (i) identifying strategic priorities for safety; (ii) engaging key stakeholders; (iii) communicating and building awareness; (iv) establishing system level objectives; (v) strengthening error reports/analysis; (vi) supporting staff and families impacted by errors; and (vii) aligning safety activities and incentives. Strategic priorities must encompass: (i) communicating patient safety as an organizational priority; (ii) adding safety to the job description of every employee; (iii) assessing the organization’s current culture and enhancing the role of safety within it; (iv) establishing an open culture of trust for error transparency; and (v) supporting educational programmes on safety at all levels. Communicating the importance of patient and personnel safety includes safety focused management ‘walk-rounds’, safety briefings, error reporting without reprisal, and time-outs called when the safety of patients and personnel is not assured. Safety within an organization’s culture can be enhanced by: (i) comparing quality/safety performance to benchmarks; (ii) employing error analysis methods such as root cause analysis and failure mode effects analysis; (iii) moving beyond benchmarks to highest attainable levels; (iv) measuring performance improvement over time; and (v) establishing ‘recognition triggers’ of potential/real errors. Medical errors affect not only patients and their families, but also caregivers and the institutions in which care has been delivered. Health care is a complex, personnel intensive process, often functioning in a high intensity environment. Errors can happen because people are involved in the process, and the organization should make every effort, wherever possible, to establish mechanisms to prevent errors from adversely affecting patients. Still, errors cannot be prevented in their entirety, nor can patients be protected entirely from them. Consequently, some errors will harm patients, and the employees associated with that harm will undoubtedly feel terrible. An organization must have a process in place to support those employees and help them recover from the dismay accruing from the errors and resulting harm. Some rules are available to align the safety activities and incentives of an organization. They include: (i) unification of strategic, quality improvement and financial plans towards an emphasis on patient and personnel safety; (ii) incorporation of safety and quality goals and measures into criteria for employee compensation and advancement; (iii) design of work processes to enhance safety; (iv) assurance that the right thing is the easy thing to do; (v) standardization of work processes to reduce variation; (vi) provide an emphasis on teamwork; (vii) trust and empower employees; and (viii) match work tasks to people’s strengths. An organization committed to patient and personnel safety should provide a management structure that follows a number of procedural guidelines, including: (i) responsibilities of individuals must be communicated clearly, and understanding of the responsibilities must be ensured; (ii) responsibilities entrusted to individuals must be within the scope of the individuals’ education and ability; (iii) early warnings of risk must be present wherever possible; (iv) employees must be able to learn from the mistakes of others through a non-punitive error reporting process; (v) corrective actions to mitigate errors must be documented and communicated; (vi) periodic performance audits and peer review must be conducted; and (vii) when and where available, accreditation of specific health care facilities should be obtained. A number of initiatives have been developed recently to help ensure the safety and appropriateness of medical imaging. An Image Gently campaign focused on paediatric radiology was launched in 2008 by the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging . This campaign has had a major impact on reducing radiation dose to paediatric patients by ‘right-sizing’ imaging protocols to patient sizes. Within the Image Gently campaign, the Step Lightly Initiative focuses on the reduction of radiation dose in interventional radiologic procedures . The Image Wisely campaign is modelled, in part, on the Image Gently campaign and is focused on appropriate and safe use of medical imaging for adult patients . This initiative is a cooperative effort of the American College of Radiology, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American Society of Radiologic Technologists, and the Radiological Society of North America. The Choosing Wisely programme is an effort by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation to encourage physicians to be better stewards of finite health care resources, including the use of imaging procedures . Instilling a culture of safety in an organization encompasses several processes and steps, many of which are outlined in this paper. Foremost, it requires leadership from the top of the organization, and recognition by all employees that safety is everyone’s responsibility. The radiation dose to the population of the United States of America from medical radiation is now almost equal to that of background radiation, and increased more than seven times in the 25 years from the early 1980s to 2006. There has been an inexorable rise in the range and numbers of minimally invasive interventional techniques being performed using fluoroscopy, and these techniques have offered enormous benefits to many patients who otherwise may not be candidates for more invasive surgery. The range of radionuclides that can be used in medicine has also increased and the types of specific radiotherapy have become more complex. Despite these huge benefits, health professionals have to accept that some procedures deliver high radiation doses to patients. Radiation injuries, in interventional radiology and cardiology, and accidental exposures in radiotherapy are fortunately not common compared to the number of procedures or treatments performed, but were increasingly reported in the 1990s and 2000s. It is now 11 years since the International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy was held in March 2001, in Malaga, Spain. This landmark conference is now often referred to simply as the ‘Malaga conference’ among radiological protection professionals, which is a reflection of the significance of the event. These included optimization with an emphasis on reducing doses and risks without compromising image quality or treatment effectiveness, recognition of high dose procedures, monitoring doses from multiple examinations, and the development of adequate infrastructures to support the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. The subsequent Action Plan addressed issues of education and training of health professionals; appropriate exchange of information, with wider dissemination of that related to protection of patients; and the provision of practice specific guidance documents in collaboration with professional bodies and international organizations.
For high risk contact and collision sports it is not usually appropriate to permit a player with active skin lesions to return to play with covered skin lesions purchase zestoretic overnight delivery blood pressure yahoo health. Participation with a covered lesion can be considered for lower contact sports if the area of skin can be adequately and securely covered cheap zestoretic 17.5mg mastercard heart attack toni braxton. Players should not be allowed return to high risk sporting activities until these are met purchase zestoretic overnight blood pressure medication gives me a headache. Many of these exclusion criteria require the correct diagnosis and treatment of the skin infection. Many also specify the duration of treatment that must be completed before the pupil can return to play. Covering of active skin lesions is generally not permitted to allow return to play. For lesions that are permitted to be covered the recommended approach is to cover with a bio-occlusive dressing then pre-wrap and tape. Therefore, it is recommended that pupils do not participate in body contact / collision sports for 4 weeks after onset of illness. Due to the nature of the illness many pupils may not be ready to return to full team participation within 4 weeks. Tetanus Tetanus is a severe disease but, thanks to vaccination, is now rare in Ireland. However, spores from tetanus bacteria are ubiquitous in soil, particularly ground contaminated by animal faeces, such as sports felds used by farm animals. Therefore the potential for tetanus spores to enter into a wound or break in skin remains. Precautions for pupils undertaking sporting activity in outdoor settings where contact with soil is likely include: • Pupils should be appropriately immunised with tetanus containing vaccine (4 doses <11-14 years of age; 5 doses >14 years of age). It is not intended as a diagnostic guide or as a substitute for consulting a doctor. A child who has an infectious disease may show general symptoms of illness before development of a rash or other typical features. These symptoms may include shivering attacks or feeling cold, headache, vomiting, sore throat or just vaguely feeling unwell. Depending on the illness the child is often infectious before the development of characteristic symptoms or signs, e. In the meantime, the pupil should be kept warm and comfortable, and away from the main group of pupils. If symptoms appear to be serious or distressing, an ambulance and/or doctor should be called. If a school is concerned that there may be an outbreak of an infectious disease they should contact their local Department of Public Health for further advice and support. It is important that any pupils or staff members who are unwell should not attend the school. They should only return once they are recovered (see exclusion notes for the different diseases). They are particularly vulnerable to chickenpox or measles and if exposed to either of these infections, their parent/carer should be informed promptly and further medical advice sought. The chickenpox virus causes shingles, so anyone who has not had chickenpox is potentially vulnerable to infection if they have close contact with a case of shingles. Information on the more common communicable diseases is set out in the following pages. The rash the eye and eyelid, and causes a sore or itchy red eye with appears as small red “pimples” usually starting on the a watery or sticky discharge. It may be caused by germs back, chest and stomach and spreading to the face, scalp, such as bacteria or viruses, or it may be due to an allergy arms and elsewhere. Treatment depends on the cause but is become blisters, which begin to dry and crust within often by eye drops or ointment. Blisters may develop in the mouth and bacteria and viruses may be spread by contact with the eye throat that can be painful and may give rise to diffculty discharge, which gets onto the hands when a pupil rubs in swallowing. Precautions: Regular hand washing will prevent person to Chickenpox is not usually severe in children but can cause person transmission. The virus lies dormant in the body after chickenpox and may cause an attack of Exclusion: Exclusion is not generally indicated but in shingles in later life. A person with shingles is infectious circumstances where spread within the class or school is and can give others chickenpox. It is not possible to evident it may be necessary to recommend exclusion of get shingles from a case of chickenpox. The disease affected pupils until they recover, or until they have had spreads easily from person-to-person. Precautions: Pregnant women or individuals with impaired immunity who have not had the disease and are in contact with a case should seek medical advice promptly. Children under 18 with chickenpox should not be given aspirin or any aspirin containing products due to an association with Reyes syndrome, a very serious and potentially fatal condition. Exclusion: Those with chickenpox should be excluded from school until scabs are dry; this is usually 5-7 days after the appearance of the rash. Those with shingles, whose lesions cannot be covered, should be excluded from school until scabs are dry. It is a bacterial infection that can The main symptoms of gastroenteritis are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain, which occur cause a thick coating in the nose, throat and airway. Diarrhoea is an increase in Complications include heart failure, paralysis, severe bowel frequency (three or more loose bowel movements breathing problems or diffculty in swallowing. The common route of spread is by hand-to-mouth and the ingestion Exclusion: Very specifc exclusion criteria apply and will of foods or liquids contaminated by germs. Often the illness is short lived and does not require a visit to a doctor or specifc identifcation of the germ responsible. However if someone is very sick, has bloody diarrhoea, if symptoms persist for more than a few days, or if there is a signifcant outbreak within a school then a specifc diagnosis should be sought. To do this the doctor will request that a sample of faeces is sent to the laboratory for analysis. While the causes are varied, strict attention to personal hygiene is important to reduce the spread of disease. The most important ways to reduce spread of gastroenteritis are hand washing and exclusion. Pupils should be encouraged to wash hands after toileting, before eating, after contact with animals, after sporting or play activities, and after any contact with body fuids. All staff and pupils who have had gastroenteritis should be excluded while symptomatic and the 48 hours since their last episode of diarrhoea and/or vomiting. Environmental cleaning is also very important in limiting the spread of gastroenteritis.
Ideally purchase zestoretic 17.5mg with visa blood pressure garlic, physicians would be paid a monthly or annual subscription fee for each consumer who signed up to be cared for by the physician buy zestoretic with a mastercard arrhythmia ekg. Some of the emerging and controversial concepts in physician practice generic 17.5 mg zestoretic with mastercard blood pressure medication start with l, like so-called “boutique medicine,” where consumers pay a fee to enter a physician’s practice, anticipate this subscription model. The key to the subscription is establishing electronic connectiv- ity between the consumer and the physician he or she has chosen. After electronic connectivity has been established between con- sumers and providers, maintaining electronic contact with con- sumers should be far less costly than under a visit-and-telephone- consultation system. Many interactions that required patient visits under the old system could be handled “asynchronously” under the electronic system, with software assistance supported by the physician’s ofﬁce staff. Many functions, like prescription renewals, transmittal of vi- tal signs, scheduling, and billing, that were handled in person or through telephone interactions could be automated through Inter- net applications and managed by the physician’s or hospital’s staff. In addition, someone other than the physician may handle many requests for information. Subscription fees would cover maintenance of the 24/7 connec- tions, as well as the cost of most services the consumer would use in a year. The fees would be paid to the principal physician by the health plan or federal government, which would be functioning not as a ﬁscally interested intermediary, but rather as a sponsor of the relationship. The costs of periodic screening both for genetic and cellular abnormalities would be included in the subscription amount. Hospitalizations and other relatively rare medical interventions would probably be paid separately from the subscription amount. These costs, as well as those of specialists and consultants, would 166 Digital Medicine Figure 7. These per-episode payments would be larger for older consumers or those with complex health problems. Physicians should have broad discretion in determining what type of services are provided, but should have an incentive to economize where possible. As with surgical procedures, hospi- talizations would carry a substantial consumer cost share, based on ability to pay. The method of payment should be neutral on the cost of im- munizations and immune therapy. The custom fabrication of im- munizations or other forms of therapy based on the consumer’s genotype would be treated as an “episode of care” like a surgical procedure, but to encourage these preventive measures, the cost should be borne separately by the health plan and be shared mod- estly with the patient or the physician to encourage them to be used. Health Policy Issues Raised by Information Technology 167 Substantial consumer cost sharing, graded to income, would be essential to exert a braking inﬂuence on procedure costs. Thus, consumers and physicians would have the same incentive to avoid unnecessary care, or care that could be made unnecessary by suc- cessful management of identiﬁed health risks. The “intelligent” clinical information system discussed earlier could provide the information base not only to analyze patterns of healthcare spending, but also to determine the most effective methods of care. Analysis of this information across large groups of patients could give to providers at risk for the cost of care the tools and information needed to make intelligent decisions about how to maximize the health of their subscribers. This information was missing in nearly all of the examples where physicians groups attempted to manage “capitated” payment during the 1990s (and went broke doing it). The principal way that physicians would increase their income is by enrolling more consumers and by minimizing the amount of cu- rative medicine their patients need. They would grow their practices by earning higher consumer satisfaction evaluations and garnering referrals from satisﬁed customers. These satisfaction scores would be posted on consumer web sites and be available to help guide consumers’ choice of physicians. Physicians who do an especially skillful job of organizing their connectivity and support for con- sumers, particularly responding to consumer questions and manag- ing disease-management protocols, could handle a larger panel of consumers than physicians today. The more effective physicians are in helping consumers identify and manage their medical risks, the more they earn. To encourage this, physician fees for medical and surgical procedures should be paid out of the per-episode-of-care amount, creating incentives for physicians to work with their consumers to minimize the need for these procedures. Under a subscription system, physicians who continued relying on patient visits and telephone interactions would have higher over- head and not be able to “scale up” effectively to handle larger groups 168 Digital Medicine of consumers/subscribers. Computer technology and effective sup- port stafﬁng could markedly improve physician productivity as well as result in better health outcomes for subscribers. We must begin thinking as a society about how to manage a po- tential quantum increase in health expenses. This expense increase would occur with a constant population that was not aging, given the technological advances that have been discussed. Add to this technological transformation an expanding population and the im- pending retirement of a 76-million-person cohort of baby boomers (whose oldest members are 57 in 2003), and one has all the necessary ingredients for ﬁscal catastrophe. How the responsibility for paying for that rise is distributed among the var- ious responsible parties is the essential societal debate. The emerging predictive tools and expensive remedies for disease beg the question of how much longer this can remain a tenable way of thinking about health ﬁnancing. The concept of identiﬁable genetic disease risk and the (slowly) emerging capability to manage those risks will give our society powerful new tools to improve the quality of our lives. In the face of these emerging technologies, continuing to view healthcare as something to which consumers are simply entitled, to be paid for with someone else’s money, under economic incentives that encourage physicians to maximize their income by doing more, is irresponsible social policy. Finding a humane and responsible balance of risk and responsibility for health and health cost is the Health Policy Issues Raised by Information Technology 169 most unpleasant but necessary piece of health policy on the national horizon. By the time this transformation is completed, our health system will be wired (as well as wireless), more intelligent, and much more responsive to both consumers and caregivers. Nevertheless, those who are interested in having such a system in the near future must be sobered by the difﬁculty for the health system to achieve real change. This is explained by a corollary proposition, ﬁrst made by 171 Nathan Myrvold, the former chief technology ofﬁcer for Microsoft, who once said, “Software is a gas. It has been easier for software ﬁrms to grow through acquisition and patch together interfaces than to fundamentally reexamine how their tools can be used to make healthcare better. Healthcare managers have been guilty, however, of assuming that simply purchasing and installing clinical software is enough to achieve real transformation. The reality is that transformation of care processes and relationships must be an explicit objective of the organization, with board, executive management, and clinical leadership all committed to making their contribution to achieving that transformation. Transformation is not a task that can be delegated to the vendor, because neither the vendor nor the chief information ofﬁcer who manages the vendor relationship has enough power to change how care is actually ren- dered in healthcare organizations. Thus, their businesses have little leverage of scale and are thinly capitalized and vulnerable. Technologies need to solve problems, and if they do not, physicians literally have no time for them. However, physicians are exceptionally conservative as actors in the health system. Many have a small-business mentality and practice outside the sphere of the hospitals they use. Even in large groups and health systems, physicians tend to behave not as institutional citizens, but as free agents. They are often depressingly resistant both to leadership by their peers and to change itself.
Co-Curriculum courses will be included in the students’ course registration account prior to the E-Daftar activity purchase genuine zestoretic prehypertension stage 1, if their pre-registration application is successful order zestoretic master card heart attack youtube. E-Daftar System can be accessed through the Campus Online portal (https://campusonline order 17.5 mg zestoretic amex blood pressure diastolic high. Students need to click at the E-Daftar menu to access and register for the relevant courses. Students are advised to print the course registration confirmation slip upon completion of the registration process or after updating the course registration list (add/drop) within the E-Daftar period. Guidelines to register/gain access to the E-Daftar portal are available at the Campus Online portal’s main page. Students must refer to the schedule at the notice board of their respective Schools. After Week Six, all registration, including adding and dropping of courses will be administered by the Examination & Graduation Section Office (Academic Management Division, Registry). The semester in which the student is on leave is not considered for the residency period. The contact details are as follows:- General Office : 04-6535242/ 5243/5248 for Main Malay Language Programme Chairperson : 04-6533974 Campus English Language Programme Chairperson : 04-6533406 students Foreign Language Programme Chairperson : 04-6533396 Engineering Campus Programme Chairperson : 04-5995407 : 04-5996385 Health Campus Programme Chairperson : 09-7671252 b) Registration for co-curriculum courses through E-Daftar is not allowed. Co-curriculum courses will be included in the students’ course registration account prior to the E-Daftar activity, if their pre-registration application is successful. Students who are interested must complete the course registration form which can be printed from the Campus Online Portal or obtained directly from the School. Approval from the lecturers of the courses to be audited and the Dean/Deputy Dean (Academic) (signed and stamped) in the course registration form is required. Registration of ‘Audit’ courses (Y code) is not included in the calculation of the total registered workload units. General information on this matter is as follows: i) Late course registration and addition are only allowed in the first to the third week with the approval of the Dean. For this purpose, students must meet the requirements set by the University as follows:- (i) Dropping Course Form must be completed by the student and signed by the lecturer of the course involved and the Dean/Deputy Dean of their respective Schools and submitted to the general office of the School/Centre which is responsible for offering the courses involved. Lecturers have the right not to certify the course that the student wishes to drop if the student is not serious, such as poor attendance record at lectures, tutorials and practical, as well as poor performance in course work. Students are advised to always check all the information displayed on this website. Normally, confirmation from 79 Academic Advisors will be made known to every student during the first semester in the first year of their studies. Academic Advisors will advice the students under their responsibility on academic-related matters. Among the important advice for the student is the registration planning for certain courses in each semester during the study period. Before registering the course, students are advised to consult and discuss with their Academic Advisor to determine the courses to be registered in a semester. Final year students are advised to consult their respective academic advisors before registering via E-Daftar to ensure they fulfil the graduation requirements. The unit is determined by the scope of its syllabus and the workload for the students. In general, a unit is defined as follows:- Type of Course Definition of Unit Theory 1 unit is equivalent to 1 contact hour per week for 13 – 14 weeks in one semester. To graduate, students must accumulate the total number of credits stipulated for the programme concerned. Students are required to settle all due fees and fulfil the standing requirements for lectures/tutorials/practical and other requirements before being allowed to sit for the examination of courses they have registered for. Course evaluation will be based on the two components of coursework and final examinations. Coursework evaluation includes tests, essays, projects, assignments and participation in tutorials. Students will also be barred from sitting for the final examination if they have not settled the academic fees. However, this opportunity is only given to students who are taking courses that they have attempted before and achieved a grade as stipulated above, provided that the course is being offered. The results will be released and announced after the University Examination Council meeting and is usually two weeks after the provisional results are released. However if the School would like to approve only one course at the diploma level for unit exemption of one course at degree level, the course at diploma level must be equivalent to the degree course and have the same or more units. If a student has undergone industrial training during the period of diploma level study, the student must have work experience for at least one year. The students are also required to produce a report on the level and type of work performed. The form must be approved by the Dean of the School prior to submission to the Examination & Graduation Section for consideration and approval. Courses that can be transferred are only courses that have the same number of units or more. For equivalent courses but with less number of units, credit transfers can be approved by combining a few courses. The most essential values in academia are rooted in the principles of truth- seeking in knowledge and honesty including one’s own rights and intellectual property. Thus, students must bear the responsibility of maintaining these principles in all work done in their academic endeavours. The following are examples of practices or actions that are considered dishonest acts in academic pursuit. There are numerous ways and methods of cheating and they include: Copying from others during a test or an examination. Tampering with marks /grades after the work has been returned, then re-submitting them for re-marking/re-grading. Plagiarism means to produce, present or copy others’ work without authorization and acknowledgment as the primary source in the form of articles, opinions, thesis, books, unpublished works, research data, conference and seminar papers, reports, paper work, website data, lecture notes, design, creative products, scientific products, music, music node, artefacts, computer source codes, ideas, recorded conversations and others materials. In short, it is the use, in part or whole, of others’ words or ideas and then claiming them as yours without proper attribution to the original author. It includes: Copying and pasting information, graphics or media from the Internet into your work without citing the source. The non-acknowledgment of an invention or findings of an assignment or academic work, alteration, falsification or misleading use of data, information or citation in any academic work constitute fabrication. Some examples of collusion include: Paying, bribing or allowing someone else to do an assignment, test/examination, project or research for self-interest. Examples of unfair advantage are: Gaining access to reproduce or circulate test or examination materials prior to its authorised time. If under any circumstances a student comes to know of any incident that denotes a violation of academic integrity, the student must report it to the relevant lecturer.